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Nigeria: Political System

Nigeria: Political System

Nigeria is a presidential federal republic in the Commonwealth. The parliament is a bicameral system and consists of the House of Representatives with 360 members and the Senate with 109 members. The election takes place every 4 years, as does the direct election of the head of state. According to, the official name of the country is:

Republic of Nigeria

National anthem

Arise, O compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey has been the national anthem of Nigeria since 1978 (the previous one was called "Nigeria we hail the")

In the English version In the English translation
Arise, O compatriots, Nigeria's call obey

to serve our fatherland

with love and strength and faith.

The labor of our heroes past

shall never be in vain

to serve with heart and might

one nation bound in freedom, peace and unity.Oh God of creation, direct our noble cause;

Guide our leaders right;

Help our Youth the truth to know

In love and honesty to grow

And living just and true

Great lofty heights attain

To build a nation where peace and justice shall reign.

Rise up, compatriots, answer Nigeria's call

to serve our country

with love, strength and confidence.

The efforts of our past heroes

shall never be in vain

to serve with heart and strength of

a nation united in freedom, peace and unity.Oh Creator God, direct our lofty cause, direct our

leaders properly,

help our youth to see the truth,


up in love and honesty, and live righteously and faithfully,

attain great lofty heights to

build a nation where peace and justice reign.

National flag

The national flag of Nigeria was officially introduced on October 1, 1960. Based on flag descriptions by, the two colors have the following meaning:

- Green stands for agriculture, but it is also the flag of Islam.

- White represents peace and unity.

Nigeria flag and coat of arms

Nigeria: Known People


Hafsat Abiola (born 1974)

The Nigerian activist, born in Lagos in 1974, works for human rights and democracy. She is the daughter of Moshood Abiola, who won the first democratic elections in Nigeria in 1993, but was subsequently imprisoned and died in prison in 1998.

Abdulsalami Abubakar (born 1942)

Abubakar was President of Nigeria from 1998 to 1999. Under him there was rapid democratization in the country, for which he later received honors from various states and organizations.

Chinua Achebe (born 1930)

The Nigerian writer, who was actually born in 1930 as Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe, is not unjustifiably regarded as the founder of modern Nigerian literature. The politically active writer was honored with the Man Booker International Prize in 2007.

Sade Adu (born 1959)

Sade, actually Helen Folasade Adu, is one of the most popular Nigerian-British singers in the world. The soul and R&B singer has sold more than 50 million records to date. One of their best known hits was Smooth Operator.

Tony Oladipo Allen (born 1940)

The Nigerian drummer, born in Lagos in 1940, also made a name for himself as a composer and songwriter. He is considered the founder of Afrobeat.

Nana Asma'u (1793-1864)

Nana Asma'u was an African poet and teacher who was revered in northern Nigeria long after her death. The daughter of Usman dan Fodio, the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate, was a strong advocate for independence, education and equality.

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (born 1941)

From 1985 to 1993, Babangida was Nigeria's military dictator. The politician who came to power through a bloodless coup is remembered as a corrupt, brutal dictator who did not shy away from human rights violations and political murders.

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (1912-1966)

Balewa, who served as Nigeria's first Prime Minister from 1957 to 1966, was one of the founders of the Northern People's Congress. Despite his efforts, his reign was marked by domestic political crises, which culminated in Balewa being kidnapped and murdered by the military during a coup.

Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello (1909-1966)

The War Sardauna, i.e. King of Sokoto, is the grandson of Usman Dan Fodjo, the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate. In 1949 he made a name for himself as a co-founder of the conservative Northern People's Congress (NPC).

Noel G. DaCosta (1929-2002)

The American composer, violinist and choir director of Nigerian-Jamaican origins has directed the Triad Chorale since 1975. Da Costa has performed with him at Lincoln Center and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine.

Florence Ekpo-Umoh (born 1977)

The German sprinter of Nigerian origin, born in 1977, experienced her sporting end after a doping scandal after very good success. In the meantime, it made its comeback in 2008.

Buchi Emecheta (born 1944)

The Nigerian writer, born in Lagos in 1944, achieved her literary breakthrough with her novel The Joys of Motherhood in 1979. In it she tells of the fate of a woman who fails because of the contrast between tradition and colonialism.

Yakubu Dan-Yumma Gowon (born 1934)

The former President of Nigeria (1966-1975) experienced a term of office that was marked by ethnic conflicts. Gowon tried to end this through reconciliation. He also relied on the development of an infrastructure and social policy. On May 28, 1975, he signed the Lagos Treaty, which anticipated the creation of the ECOWAS Economic Community.

Keziah Jones (born 1968)

The Nigerian singer and guitarist, born in Lagos in 1968 as Olufemi Sanyaolu, perfected the style of percussive guitar playing.

Nojim Maiyegun (born 1944)

The former Nigerian middleweight boxer has boxed as a professional since 1971, but can only look back on a career without major highlights. Tragically, Maiyegun later went blind, with doctors attributing this to violent boxing beatings.

Jessica McIntyre (born 1976)

The British actress, born 1976 in Kano, Nigeria, currently lives in Germany. Some of the most famous films she starred in include Where's Fred? (2006) and Dunkel (2010).

Murtala Ramat Mohammed (1938-1976)

The former President of Nigeria (1975/1976) began his term in office with a far-sighted democratization program, but was fatally injured a few months later during a coup attempt in 1976. The international airport of Lagos was named after him in his honor. The Mercedes in which Mohammed was shot can now be seen in the National Museum of Lagos.

Anthony Olubunmi Cardinal Okogie (born 1936)

The cardinal, born in 1936, has been the archbishop of his native Lagos since 1973. He has also been a cardinal since 2003.

George Osodi (born 1974)

The Nigerian photographer initially worked as a press photographer before he was able to celebrate successes in the international art world since the mid-2000s.

Twins Seven Seven (born 1947)

The well-known Nigerian painter, whose real name is Taiwo Olaniyi, is also a musician, dancer, entrepreneur and politician.

Ken Saro-Wiwa (1941-1995)

The Nigerian human rights activist and writer received the Alternative Nobel Prize in 1994 and was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1996, before he was executed by the military junta under General Abacha in 1995 together with 8 fellow campaigners from the Ogoni people.

Nigeria: animals

Nigeria: plants

With an area of 923,768 (31st) km², Nigeria is almost three times the size of Germany. It is therefore not surprising that very different plants can be found in the different regions of the country.

Mangrove forests in particular grow on the coast. Further north there was tropical rainforest, which was almost completely cut down. Instead, mainly oil palms were planted. This affects an area of around 20% of the country's surface.

Further north extends the savannah, which covers about 70% of the country.

These include moist savannah with trees and grasses up to 5 m high.

On the rivers you can find gallery forests with khaya trees (African mahogany) or Afzelia africana, Isoberlinia doka and Burkea africana.

In the dry savannah high in the north, the local grasses are about 2 m high and you can only find a few trees.

In the northeast, a small area belongs to the Sahel zone, where, for example, acacias can be found.


In addition to the plants mentioned here, you will find a number of other plants under the heading National Parks.






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