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Panama

Panama: Political System

After the constitutional amendment of August 1, 1972, Panama is a republic with an elected president as head of state and head of government. Parliament, the legislative assembly, is elected every five years and consists of 72 members.

Panama: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Republic of Panama

República de Panamá

National anthem

The national anthem of a country is usually a piece of music underlaid with a text that represents the state or To express the national feeling of a country. It is usually played on particularly festive occasions. The introduction of the national anthems goes back to the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

The national anthem of Panama is the Hymno Istmeno, written by Jeronimo de la Ossa with the music of Santos Jorge:

Choir:

Alcanzamos por fin la victoria

En el campo feliz de la unión;

Con ardientes fulgores de gloria

Se ilumina la nueva nación.Verses: Es preciso cubrir con un velo

Del pasado el calvario y la cruz;

Y que adorne el azul de tu cielo

De concordia la espléndida luz.El progreso acaricia tus lares.

Al compás de sublime canción,

Ves rugir a tus pies ambos mares

Quedan rumbo a tu noble misión.(Choir)En tu suelo cubierto de flores

A los besos del tibio terral,

Terminaron guerreros fragores;

Sólo reina el amor fraternal.

Adelante la pica y la pala,

Al trabajo sin más dilación,

Y seremos así prez y gala

De este mundo feraz de Colón.

National flag

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national flag (country flag) symbolizes certain historical developments or special characteristics of a country. Today every country has its own national flag, which is often supplemented by numerous other flags inside.

Panama flag and coat of arms

Panama: personalities

Belisario Porras Barahona (1856-1942)

The former President of Panama became a member of the Liberal Party of Panama after his studies and pleaded for Panama's independence from Colombia. This led to differences with the government. A short time later he was forced to go into exile first in Nicaragua and later in El Salvador. In 1900 he returned to Panamá and became the leader of the troops that fought against the territories occupied by Colombia. The first attempts failed, so that he had to go back into exile. Porras only returned to his homeland after the liberation of Panama, where he initially worked as a government diplomat. Due to his popularity with the population, he was elected president in 1912 and remained in office for his entire term until 1916. Due to the defeats of his two incompetent successors, he was reinstated as president in 1918. During his reign he initiated the consolidation and reorganization of the political institutions and passed a new constitution. He put great effort into the expansion of transport connections, and he suggested the construction of the Chiriquí Railway. Further priorities were the expansion of health facilities and the expansion of sanitary facilities.

Barahona died in a private clinic in Panama City in 1942.

Rubén Blades Bellido de Luna (born 1948)

Born in Panama City, Blades became known as a Panamanian singer and actor. He is one of the most famous salsa musicians in the world and is currently the tourism minister of his country.

Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (born 1934/1938 or 1940)

Noriega, also known as “The Pineapple” because of his pockmarked skin, was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989. The "Chief of the National Guard", as he called himself, was appointed head of government in 1989 by the Panamanian National Assembly with extraordinary and unlimited rights. In connection with the US invasion of Panama in 1989, Noriega surrendered to the US authorities and was sentenced to 40 years imprisonment in the US in 1992 (later reduced to 30 years). Noriega is currently in a federal prison in Miami.

Mireya Elisa Moscoso Rodríguez de Arias (born 1946)

The widow of former President Arnulfo Arias, who was born in Panama City in 1946, was President of Panama from 1999 to 2004. After winning her election with great promises, she ended her term in a highly unpopular manner due to serious allegations of corruption during her reign.

Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera (1929-1981)

The Panamanian general and leader of the military junta (1968-1981) signed the so-called "Torrijos Carter Treaties" with the then US President Jimmy Carter in 1977. These documents guaranteed Panama full autonomy over the Canal from 2000 onwards. In 1981 Torrijos was killed in a plane crash.

Martín Erasto Torrijos Espino (born 1963)

This Panamanian politician from Panama City is the son of the former military ruler Omar Torrijos. In 2004, Espino was elected President of his country and still holds this office today.

Panama: animals

Mammals

Mammals

Mammals include armadillos, sloths, all four species of the anteater, the Geoffrey and the brown-headed spider monkey, the Panama-wacked monkey, the squirrel monkey, the gray-brown night monkey, the coat howler monkey, the Panama water hog, fallow deer, bats and the ocelot.

A number of these animals are described in more detail below:

Agoutis

The agoutis (Dasyprocta) are a genus of rodents from the family of the agoutis and acouchis (Dasyproctidae). They have slender bodies and a thick and coarse coat that is usually dark orange or brownish in color.

They live in forests, dense bushland and savannahs, but also in fields and plantations. They are usually diurnal.

Their underside is white or yellowish. The animals reach a head-trunk length of 40 to 65 cm - with a weight between 1.5 to 4 kg.

As pure herbivores, agoutis feed on fruits, nuts and leaves. Stems or roots. In the Amazon region, they are almost the only animals that can open hard Brazil nuts with their teeth.

A distinction is made between eleven types of agoutis, of which the following two species are found in Panama:

- Coiba agouti (Dasyprocta coibae), which occurs only on the island of Coiba off the coast of Panama.

- Goldaguti (Dasyprocta leporina), which is found in northern and central South America.

Anteaters

Of the anteaters from the suborder Vermilingua there are four different species from three different genera.

Its long tubular snout is striking. They also have a thick coat and very strong claws on their front feet.

The four different species reach a length between 20 to 140 cm - with a weight between 300 g and up to 50 kg for the great anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

The great anteater is exclusively a ground dweller and lives in savannah areas, while the pygmy anteater only lives on trees. The other two species live both on the ground and in trees.

They feed almost exclusively on ants and termites, which is where their name comes from. The animals mostly live as solitary animals in their own territories.

The females only give birth to one young at a time. The following species is found in Panama:

- Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana), the animal is found in Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.

American otters

American otters (Lontra) are a genus of predators from the subfamily of the otter (Lutrinae) and of the family of the marten (Mustelidae). The animals are very similar to the Eurasian otter and also have their size.

Their fur is very dense and water-repellent. It is colored brown on the top while the underside is light brown or grayish in color. The snout and throat are whitish or light gray in color. American otters have a head-body length of 45 to 85 cm - with a tail length of 30 to 55 cm. Their weight varies between 5 and 15 kg, with the males becoming significantly heavier than the females.

The otters are predominantly crepuscular or nocturnal, while during the day they stay in structures that they have dug themselves or that they have taken over from other animals. They are excellent swimmers and can stay underwater for up to around 8 minutes.

The animals are solitary animals, the only prolonged relationship being that of the females with their young. Their territories cover a length of up to 60 km along a body of water. They mark the boundaries of their territory with urine, feces or with the help of their anal glands.

Their diet consists mainly of fish, amphibians, turtles and other reptiles and crustaceans. Sometimes they also eat birds and their eggs, as well as small mammals or insects.

The animals can be found almost all over the American continent - from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego Chile and Argentina), although over time it has been wholly or largely extinct in a number of regions.

These otters can always be found near water and live along rivers and lakes, in marshland, at river mouths, but also on the coasts of the sea.

There are four species of the American river otter:

- North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) occurs in large parts of North America from Alaska and Canada in the north to Florida and in the southwest of the USA.

It can be found on rivers, large ponds, lakes and salt marshes on the seashore. It prefers waters with dense bank vegetation.

- South American river otter (Lontra longicaudis). The animal is found in large parts of tropical South and Central America - from Mexico to Uruguay and the central part of Argentina. The animal is also native to Panama

Brown-headed spider monkey

The brown-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps) is a species of monkey from the genus of spider monkeys (Ateles) and from the family of spider monkeys (Atelidae).

It has long and thin arms and legs with a long tail. Their head-torso length is 40 to 55 cm, their tail is 60 to 85 cm long and serves as a prehensile tail.

The mean of the animals is around 9 kg, the males being slightly larger and heavier than the females.

There are two subspecies of the species:

- Ateles fusciceps fusciceps with a black-brown fur and a brown head.

This subspecies is only found in Ecuador west of the Andes.

- Ateles fusciceps rufiventris, on the other hand, is completely black.

This subspecies lives in the west of Colombia and in the east of Panama.

The animals live in deep rainforests as well as in mountain forests up to an altitude of about 2,500. They are diurnal tree dwellers and live in groups of 20 to 30 animals.

Their diet consists mainly of fruits and leaves.

Howler monkeys

The howler monkeys (Alouatta) are a genus from the family of the spotted monkeys (Atelidae), which is found in Central and South America. There are a total of twelve different species of the genus Alouatta.

They got their name because of their loud screaming, which they utter mostly early in the morning.

Howler monkeys, with a head-trunk length of 60 to 90 cm, are among the largest monkeys on the American continent after the spider monkeys. Their tail is roughly the same length as their body.

Their weight is between 4 and 10 kg, with the males being noticeably larger and heavier than the females. Their fur color ranges from yellow-brown to red to black.

The animals are pure herbivores that feed primarily on leaves and, less often, on fruits and flowers. You can find the animals from the south of Mexico over the Amazon basin to the north of Argentina and also in Panama. The Coiba howler monkey (Alouatta coibensis) is only found in Panama.

Sloths

The sloths can be divided into the two-toed and three-toed sloths. But what both have in common is that they spend up to 18 hours hanging upside down in a tree asleep. They feed mainly on leaves.

The three-toed sloth live in the subtropical and tropical regions of Central America, and there in El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama as well as as far as South America in central Brazil.

You can find a detailed description of the animals at Goruma under three- toed sloth.

Geoffroy spider monkey

The Geoffroy spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) is a species of monkey from the family of spider monkeys (Atelidae). It was named in honor of the French zoologist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844).

Like all spider monkeys, the animals have long and thin arms and legs and a long tail. The males have a head-trunk length between 40 to 65 cm and the females between 30 to 45 cm. The tail measures 70 to 85 cm long in the males and 65 to 75 cm long in the females and acts as a prehensile tail.

The males are slightly heavier than the 6 to 8 kg females with a weight of 7.5 to 9 kg. The color ranges from reddish brown to dark brown to blackish, with the belly and the inside of the limbs being rather light. Characteristic of the animals are their dark hands and feet.

Geoffroy's spider monkeys can be found from eastern Mexico to southern Central America to Panama.

The Geoffroy spider monkeys live mainly in lowland rainforests, but also in deciduous forests, as well as in cloud forests and mangroves.

As herbivores, they particularly feed on fruits, but also on leaves and other parts of plants. This species of monkey has seven subspecies:

Armadillos

Armadillos (Dasypoda) live exclusively on the American continent, with the exception of two species only in South America.

The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) can be found in Costa Rica and Panama, which inhabits large parts of South and Central America up to and including the southeastern USA, as well as the Central American bare-tailed armadillo (Cabassous centralis).

All other species can be found in southern Brazil, in Bolivia and Paraguay as far as Argentina. In Paraguay, for example, 12 of today's 21 species are found.

Most armadillo species prefer semi-deserts, savannas and steppes with thorny bushes or dry forests. A loose subsoil is required to lay out your buildings.

The Andean bristle armadillo (Chaetophractus vellerosus) can be found in the high elevations of the Andes. Some species can also be found in the tropical rainforest, in the Yungas forests of Bolivia or in wetlands, such as the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Pantanal".

The animals are extremely different in size depending on the species. Their head-torso length varies

between 12 and 100 cm - with a weight of a few 100 g up to 45 kg.

Characteristic of the animals is the strong and arched back armor, which covers almost their entire body surface. Their diet is usually insects, but some species also feed on plants or smaller vertebrates. Today there are 21 different species of the animal.

Jaguars

Jaguars are the largest big cats on the American continent.

But since they are still hunted for their beautiful fur and their habitat is getting smaller and smaller, their population is endangered.

You can find a detailed, illustrated description of the animal here >>>

Long-tailed cat

The long-tailed cat (Leopardus wiedii) is also known as Margay, Bergozelot or Baumozelot. The animal belongs to the family of cats (Felidae).

With a head-body length between 45 and 80 cm and a tail with a length between 35 and 50 cm, the animal is slightly smaller than an ocelot.

Its weight fluctuates between 2.5 and 4 kg. The cat's fur is yellow-brown with dark, ring-shaped spots arranged in stripes. Your head is short and rounded.

The long-tailed cat lives mainly in tropical and subtropical rainforests. Now and then you can find them on coffee or cocoa plantations.

Their diet consists of rodents, smaller primates, possums, squirrels and tree rodents, but also birds and their eggs, lizards and tree frogs.

They also eat hares, agoutis and pakas.

The long-tailed cat is found in Central and South America - east of the Andes - from northern Mexico to Uruguay and Argentina.

Ocelot

The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a species of predator from the family of cats (Felidae) and the genus of the leopard cats (Leopardus).

The basic color of the fur on the upper side varies from greyish to yellowish-brown to orange, with the residents of rainforests tending to be orange or ocher, while the animals of the dry regions are mostly gray. The underside of the animals is usually whitish in color. For this purpose, it is covered with black, strip-shaped, ring-like or rosette-like spots. The inside of the spots is slightly darker than the basic color of the fur. Their head-body length varies from 55 to 100 cm - with a tail length between 30 to 45 cm. Their weight is between 11 and 16 kg.

They are nocturnal loners and feed on quill rats, New World mice and tree prickers, opossums, cottontail rabbits, but also coatis, howler monkeys, sloths, tamanduas and pintail deer. But birds and reptiles such as iguanas, turtles or snakes, amphibians and fish are also on their menu.

The cats are found from the south of the USA to northern Argentina.

It can also be found on the island of Trinidad.

Peccaries

The peccaries or peccaries belong to the family of the Tayassuidae. Its four species belong to three different genera.

- Bisampekari, Weißbartpekari (Tayassu pecari)

The Bisampekari or Weißbartpekari has a head-trunk length between 80 to 110 cm,

a shoulder height between 45 to 60 cm - with a weight of 20 to 50 kg.

Males and females are about the same size. The animals can be found from southern Mexico via Central America

and the northeast of South America to Argentina.

- Chaco peccary (Catagonus wagneri)

The Chaco peccary does not occur in Guatemala. It lives in the thorny dry forests and savannah areas of the Gran Chaco in southeastern Bolivia, Paraguay and in northern Argentina.

- Collar peccary (Pecari tajacu)

The 14 - 30 kg collar peccary has a body length of 75 to 100 cm, a shoulder height of 40 to 60 cm and a tail length of 1 to 5 cm. Males and females are about the same size.

Their distribution area extends from the southwest USA (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas) over Central and Central America, to the Río de la Plata in Argentina. The animals can also be found in Trinidad.

Its habitats are primeval forests, savannas, grass steppes and semi-deserts, but they can also be found in the higher foothills of the Andes. The animals prefer steep river valleys and thickets

- Giant pekari (Pecari maximus)

The giant peccary is only found in Brazil. With a length of up to 1.40 m

and weighing up to 40 kg, it is the largest of the peccaries.

Pumas

The Puma (Puma concolor) has a narrow body up to 130 cm long, a shoulder height of 65 cm and a strong, around 70 cm long tail with a black tip. It reaches a weight of 50 to 60 kg, whereby the females are about a third lighter. The animals living in the regions of the equator tend to be smaller than those in the far north or south. You can find a detailed description of the animal at Goruma here >>

Tapirs

The genus of the tapirs (Tapirus) have - depending on the species - a head-trunk length of 100 to 250 cm, a body height of 75 to 120 cm and a weight of 110 to 320 kg.

The different kinds of animals live both in the Flat land as well as at heights up to about 3,600 m. They are loners and feed mainly on leaves, fruits, twigs and other parts of plants.

Their existence is considered threatened, which is particularly due to the destruction of their habitats.

There are five species of the genus Tapir (Tapirus), with the lowland, mountain and Kabomani tapir occurring in South America. The Kabomani Tapir lives in parts of Brazil (Amazon, Rondônia and Mato Grosso), French Guyana and Colombia

The Central American tapir can be found in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama. The black-backed tapir, on the other hand, is only found in Southeast Asia:

- Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)

- Mountain

tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) - Kabomani tapir (Tapirus kabomani)

- Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii)

- Black-backed tapir (Tapirus indicus)

Tayra

The Tayra (Eira barbara) is a species of predator from the marten family (Mustelidae).

Their torso is elongated and slender, with relatively short limbs.

The short and rather dense fur is dark brown in color, while the head is a little lighter. Noticeable is a yellowish or whitish spot on the throat, there is usually a yellow or white spot. The tail is long and bushy. These animals have a head-trunk length of 55 to 70 cm - with a tail up to 48 cm long. Their weight is between 4 and 5 kg.

The animal can walk well, climb but also swim very well.

Their diet consists mainly of tree squirrels, rodents such as sting rats, rabbits and small pintail deer. Birds, invertebrates and fruits are also on their menu.

The tayras are found in Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Paraguay and northern Argentina - including Brazil.

They mainly inhabit tropical rainforests.

Raccoons

The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is an animal originally native to North America.

The animal is now also found in Central America.

Since around the middle of the 20th century, the animal has also been found on the European mainland, the Caucasus and in Japan.

Raccoons are mostly nocturnal predators and prefer to live in deciduous and mixed forests rich in water. Due to their adaptability, however, they live in mountain forests, on salt marshes and even in large cities, where they also look for food in garbage cans.

Its head-torso length is between 40 and 70 cm - with a weight between 3.5 and 9 kg. In the wild they prefer to feed on insects, worms, beetles, fish, frogs, toads or salamanders in spring and plants such as fruit and nuts in autumn.

Weasel Cat

The weasel cat (Puma yagouaroundi) - also known as Jaguarundi - has an elongated body with a mean length of about 65 cm and a tail about 45 cm long. The animal has relatively short legs and small round ears and weighs around 9 kg.

There are two color variants of the species, but they do not form any subspecies: The gray morph has a gray to black colored coat and the red morph, whose color varies from light brown to olive brown to bright chestnut red Bushes. The animal is found in the south of the US state of Texas over the coastal plains of Mexico and Central America, in Venezuela and as far as Argentina and Bolivia.

The animal is both diurnal and nocturnal. Its food depends on the prey animals found in the range.

Among them are cotton rats in Belize, as well as birds, reptiles and possums. However, they also eat leaves, grass and fruits were found in these excrement examinations.

Wool

pouch rats Wool pouch rats (Caluromys) are a genus from the family of the opossum rats (Didelphidae) and are divided into three different species.

Their head-torso length ranges from 18 to about 30 cm - with a weight between 200 to 500 g. The animals also use their 25 to 50 cm long, half-haired tail as a prehensile tail.

Their fur is soft and long and is colored reddish-brown or gray and has a white pattern every now and then. Their ventral side is yellowish in color. The black stripe on her face is striking.

They mostly live in forests and there mainly on trees. The crepuscular and nocturnal animals can climb very well and are loners

Their diet consists mainly of fruits, seeds, leaves, insects, but also small vertebrates.

You can find the animals from the south of Mexico to the north of Argentina.

The three species of the genus are:

- Derby woolly rat (Caluromys derbianus), which is found from southern Mexico to Ecuador.

- Brown-eared woolly rat (Caluromys lanatus, which can be found from Colombia to northern Argentina.

- Yellow woolly rat (Caluromys philander), which is found between Venezuela and southern Brazil.

Dwarf

anteater The dwarf anteater (Cyclopes didactylus) is an anteater from the genus Cyclopes. The animals have a head-torso length between 17 to 21 cm and a tail length of 18 to 24 cm. The shoulder height is on average 9 cm - with a weight between 180 to 400 g. They feed on ants and termites.

The animals are found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia in southern Mexico (Oaxaca and Veracruz), in Panama, Peru as well as in Suriname and Venezuela.

The animals can also be found on the island of Trinidad.

Reptiles and amphibians (excluding venomous snakes)

Idol snake

The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.

The prey is embraced and strangled by contracting the muscles.

The snake can be found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Amapá, Pará, Rondonia, Bahia, Sergipe, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Federal District, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Goiás, S Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte)

in Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia (Valle del Cauca).

Also in Mexico (Yucatan, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Quéretaro, Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco, Morelos and Hidalgo), in Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay.

The snake is also at home in Peru (Pasco), Suriname and Venezuela (Merida, Isla Margarita), as well as in Florida/USA - where it was released.

They can also be found in Trinidad, Tobago, Martinique, Aruba and Antigua.

There are six subspecies of the snake:

You can find a detailed description of the snake at Goruma here >>>

Loggerhead coral snake

The loggerhead coral snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), also known as triangular snake, belongs to the genus of the non-poisonous king snake (Lampropeltis), which includes around eight different species with over 20 subspecies. The snake becomes up to four feet long.

The snake can be found in Central and North America, from Panama to Canada and there often near grain fields, where the crepuscular and nocturnal snake hunts for small rodents, lizards, amphibians and reptiles as well as eggs and invertebrates

Green iguana

The green iguana (Iguana iguana) belongs to the iguanas family (Iguanidae) and to the genus Iguana. The animals reach a head-trunk length up to about 50 cm, together with the tail it becomes about 2 m long.

Despite its name, the animal is not completely green, but rather greyish-green or has a strong brown influence.

The diurnal animal lives mainly in trees, but is also a good swimmer. Its diet is purely vegetarian and consists mainly of leaves.

Its meat The meat is offered as "green chicken" because it is reminiscent of chicken. A well-known dish is sopa de garrobo.

The animal is found in Central America and in the north of South America. Individual occurrences even in the US state of Florida and on the Lesser Antilles

Caimans

The caimans (Caimaninae) are a subfamily of the family of the alligators (Alligatoridae.

With the exception of the crocodile caimans, whose range extends to Central America -

caimans only occur in South America. Since caimans have a slower metabolism than the real crocodiles, they will With 100 years almost twice as old as this.

Their preferred habitat are lakes, swamps and rivers.

The crocodile caiman is found in a very large area of South America up to the north of Bolivia. The only species among the caimans is the reptile in Central America as far as to Southern Mexico. Depending on the subspecies, the animal reaches a maximum length of 3 m and has the following subspecies:

- Common crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus)

- Northern crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus fuscus)

- Nicaraguan crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus chiapasius)

- Rio Apaporis crocodile caiman (Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis)

Green iguana

The green iguana (Iguana iguana) belongs to the iguanas family (Iguanidae) and to the genus Iguana. The animals reach a head-trunk length up to about 50 cm, together with the tail it becomes about 2 m long.

Despite its name, the animal is not completely green, but rather greyish-green or has a strong brown influence.

The diurnal animal lives mainly in trees, but is also a good swimmer. Its diet is purely vegetarian and consists mainly of leaves.

Its meat The meat is offered as "green chicken" because it is reminiscent of chicken. A well-known dish is sopa de garrobo.

The animal is found in Central America and in the north of South America. Individual occurrences even in the US state of Florida and on the Lesser Antilles

Tortoises

There are a number of tortoises in Panama that should be briefly presented.

- hybrid turtle

- hawksbill turtle

- coal turtle

The coal turtle is a terrestrial turtle species. It has an average shell length of 30 cm. Her diet consists of leaves, flowers, fruits and mushrooms, but also dead animal material, should she find any.

- Leatherback turtle

With a length of up to 185 cm and a weight of up to 700 kg, the latter is the largest turtle living in the world.

With the exception of the coal turtle, all other species occur only periodically in the country, as they are predominantly at home in warm seas.

- green turtle

- loggerhead turtle

Panama stubby frog

The Panama stubby frog, which despite its name belongs to the family of the real toad, lives in the regions of Campana and Valle de Anton in central Panama. With its 3.5-4 cm it is quite small. It is diurnal and feeds on insects, spiders, millipedes and other small invertebrates. You can find it in the tropical rainforest, where it is often found on the forest floor. One of its distinctive features is that the males take care of brood care while the females move away from the spawn.

Red

-eyed tree frog The red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) is the best-known representative of the red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis) from the family of griffin frogs (Phyllomedusinae).

The approximately 60 mm (males) to 80 mm (females) large frogs are nocturnal and spend the day high up in trees, where they hide on the underside of large leaves and attach to sleep.

At dusk they climb to the ground where they hunt small invertebrates.

You can find the frog in Mexico (Yucatán), Colombia, Nicaragua and Panama

Pointed crocodile

The pointed crocodile is one of the largest crocodile species on earth with a length of up to 7 m. But there are hardly any animals this big in freedom. Most American crocodiles are only up to 4 m long today.

They have a long and narrow snout, a bulge-shaped skull bulge in front of the eyes and a small number and irregular arrangement of the large horn shields in the neck. They prefer to stay at estuaries and in mangrove swamps. Larger populations can be found at Gatun Lake. When they are not yet fully grown, they feed on insects, snails and worms, among other things. Later also from frogs, fish, crustaceans, birds and mammals. The American crocodile is on the red list of endangered reptile species because of its heavy hunting by humans and the reduction in its natural habitats due to the increased expansion of settlement and cultivation areas.

Venomous snakes - coral snakes

General

This usually very pretty snake of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter) with its black and white or yellow and red rings occurs in 79 species with various subspecies.

They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America - with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions.

They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the trunk and their tail is short. They have The nocturnal snakes usually live hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles - more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.

Bites are extremely rare in humans. They have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between nerves and between nerves and muscles (synapses).

In addition, numerous species of snake have poisonous parts that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins). Without an antiserum, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected.

Allen's Coral Snake

The Allen's Coral Snake (Micrurus alleni) can be found in eastern Nicaragua as well as in Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama.

Clark`s Coral Snake

The Clarks Coral Snake (Micrurus clarki) is ringed in red and black with narrow white rings. The snake can be found in the southeast of Costa Rica, in the west of Colombia (Valle del Cauca) and in Panama

Dumeril`s coral snake

The Dumeril`s coral snake (Micrurus dumerilii) can be found in the north of Ecuador, in the north and west of Colombia, in the southeast of Panama and in the northwest of Venezuela.

There are six subspecies of the snake:

- Micrurus dumerilii antioquiensis

- Micrurus dumerilii carinicaudus

- Micrurus dumerilii colombianus

- Micrurus dumerilii dumerilii

- Micrurus dumerilii transandinus

- Micrurus dumerilii venezuelensis

Limon Coral

Snake The Limon Coral Snake (Micrurus mosquitensis) occurs on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua. Also in Costa Rica and Panama

Panama coral snake

The Panama coral snake (Micrurus stewarti) occurs only in the area around the canal in Panama.

Regalsche Korallenotter

The black and red striped with white stripes Regalsche Korallenotter (Micrurus ancoralis) occurs in the east of Panama, in the west of Colombia (Valle del Cauca) as well as in the west and northwest of Ecuador.

The snake has the following two subspecies:

- Micrurus ancoralis jani

- Micrurus ancoralis ancoralis

Red-tailed coral snake

The red-tailed coral snake (Micrurus mipartitus) is one of the few coral snakes with green rings.

You can find them in Costa Rica, in Ecuador, in the east of Panama, on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Valle del Cauca), in Brazil in the state of Rondônia and in the west of Venezuela (Zulia).

There are five subspecies of the snake.

Black-banded coral snake

The black-banded coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) - also known as the Central American coral snake - lives in Mexico in the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Yucatan).

They can also be found in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Nicaragua and Panama. There are seven subspecies of the snake.

Much-Banded Coral Snake

The Much-Banded Coral Snake (Micrurus multifasciatus) is found in the north and east of Costa Rica, in the north of Panama and in central Panama and in the Valle del Cauca in Colombia. Also in Nicaragua. There are two subspecies of the snake:

Dwarf

Coral Snake The dwarf coral snake (Micrurus dissoleucus) - called Pigmy Coral Snake in English - is found in Colombia, Panama and northern Venezuela. There are four subspecies of the snake

Venomous snakes - lance vipers

General

The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of the pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of the vipers (Viperidae).

The genus of the lance viper comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies.

The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.

Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.

It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation.

The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.

Golden lance viper

The golden lance viper (Bothrops punctata) occurs in Ecuador, Colombia and Panama.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Griffin-tailed lance-viper

The priff-tailed lance-viper (Bothriechis schlegelii) is found in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela

Golden lance

viper The golden lance viper (Bothrops punctatus) is called the "Chocoan Forest Pit Viper" in English.

It occurs in the northwest of Ecuador, in the west of Colombia and in the southeast of Panama. The snake can be found up to a height of around 2,000 m

T erciopelo lance viper

The Terciopelo lance viper (Bothrops asper) is also known as the rough-scaly lance viper.

They can be found in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Venomous snakes - lance vipers

General

The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of the pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of the vipers (Viperidae).

The genus of the lance viper comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies.

The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.

Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.

It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation.

The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.

Golden lance viper

The golden lance viper (Bothrops punctata) occurs in Ecuador, Colombia and Panama.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Griffin-tailed lance-viper

The priff-tailed lance-viper (Bothriechis schlegelii) is found in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela

Golden lance

viper The golden lance viper (Bothrops punctatus) is called the "Chocoan Forest Pit Viper" in English.

It occurs in the northwest of Ecuador, in the west of Colombia and in the southeast of Panama. The snake can be found up to a height of around 2,000 m

T erciopelo lance viper

The Terciopelo lance viper (Bothrops asper) is also known as the rough-scaly lance viper.

They can be found in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Venomous snakes - palm lance snakes

General

The palm lance vipers belong to the genus Bothriechis, to the subfamily of pit vipers (Crotalinae) and to the family of vipers (Viperidae).

The species of this snake genus have a length of about 60 to 80 cm - very rarely they reach a length of 1 m.

The palm lance vipers live exclusively in the trees of the tropical rainforest and are well adapted to the way of life in trees thanks to their long tail, which is optimized for grasping. Like all pit otters, they have pit organs on the sides of their heads between the nostrils and eyes, with which they can perceive thermal radiation (infrared radiation), which makes them good night hunters.

Their basic color is mostly green to greenish-yellow with light and dark speckles, whereby the very color-variable prehensile-tailed lanceolate is an exception.

Dark green (green-yellow) palm lance viper

The dark green (green-yellow) palm lance viper (Bothriechis lateralis) occurs in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Spotted palm lance viper

The spotted palm lance viper (Bothriechis supraciliaris) occurs in Costa Rica and Panama.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Black and yellow palm lance viper

The black and yellow palm lance viper (Bothriechis nigroviridis) occurs in Costa Rica and Panama.

There are no subspecies of the snake

More venomous snakes

Cope`s wine snake

The Cope`s wine snake (Oxybelis brevirostris) can be found in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama,

Costa Rica mountain lance viper

The Costa Rica mountain lance viper (Cerrophidion sasai) is found in the west of Panama as well as in Costa Rica.

Costa Rica inverted nosed viper

The Costa Rica inverted nosed viper (Porthidium volcanicum) occurs in Costa Rica and Panama.

Ore Spitznatter

The Ore Spitznatter (Oxybelis aeneus) has a large distribution area:

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Amazon, Federal District, Minas Gerais, Rondonia, Roraima, Pará, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Ceará, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco).

Also in Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Isla Margarita, Colombia in the Valle del Cauca, Mexico (Chiapas, Morelos, Oaxaca, Yucatan, Aguascalientes, Tamaulipas, Campeche, Quéretaro, Jalisco, Sonora, Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Nuevo León, Chihuahua), Nicaragua with Corn Island, Panama, Peru (Ancash), Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.

It is also found in the US state of Arizona and Venezuela (Mérida, Esqueda, La Marca).

Glossy Vine Snake

The gloss Vine Snake (Oxybelis fulgidus) reaches a size over 1.80 m. You can find them in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Pará), Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras,

Colombia, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Campeche), Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Surinam as well as Venezuela and Tobago.

Their poison is less strong and causes unpleasant local symptoms such as swelling, edema and pain as well as lymphangitis and lymph node swelling, but should be taken seriously.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Landsberg's

Stülpnsenotter The Landsberg's Stülpnsenotter (Porthidium lansbergii) is found in Panama, in the north of Colombia (from Nord-Choco and Antioquia, coastal Caribbean lowlands, and from Rio Magdalena valley, up to Honda, Tolima, Huila), on the island

Isla Margarita as well as in Venezuela.

There are three subspecies of the snake:

- Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni

- Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii

- Porthidium lansbergii rozei

Picados Spring Lance Viper

The Picados Spring Lance Viper (Atropoides picadoi) is found in Costa Rica and Panama.

Rainforest inverted-nosed viper

The rainforest inverted-nosed viper (Porthidium nasutum) is found in Mexico in the states of Chiapas, Vera Cruz and Yucatan, also in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, in Colombia in the Valle del Cauca and in Ecuador

Verrugosa Bushmaster

The Verrugosa Bushmaster (Lachesis acrochorda) occurs in Ecuador, Colombia and Panama.

The snake is very poisonous

Western inverted-

nosed viper The western inverted-nosed viper (Porthidium ophryomega) is found in Costa Rica, El Salvador, in western Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and in Mexico (Chiapas and Yucatan)

. There are no subspecies of the snake.

Central American Bushmaster

The Central American Bushmaster (Lachesis stenophrys) occurs in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama.

The snake can grow up to 3 m long, making it the longest venomous snake on the American continent. Its fangs are extremely long with a length of 3.5 cm.

Central American jumping

pit viper The Central American jumping pit viper (Atropoides mexicanus)

is found in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, in the south of Mexico (Chiapas, Querétaro) as well as in Nicaragua and Panama

There are no subspecies of the snake.

More venomous snakes

Cope`s wine snake

The Cope`s wine snake (Oxybelis brevirostris) can be found in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama,

Costa Rica mountain lance viper

The Costa Rica mountain lance viper (Cerrophidion sasai) is found in the west of Panama as well as in Costa Rica.

Costa Rica inverted nosed viper

The Costa Rica inverted nosed viper (Porthidium volcanicum) occurs in Costa Rica and Panama.

Ore Spitznatter

The Ore Spitznatter (Oxybelis aeneus) has a large distribution area:

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Amazon, Federal District, Minas Gerais, Rondonia, Roraima, Pará, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Ceará, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco).

Also in Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Isla Margarita, Colombia in the Valle del Cauca, Mexico (Chiapas, Morelos, Oaxaca, Yucatan, Aguascalientes, Tamaulipas, Campeche, Quéretaro, Jalisco, Sonora, Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Nuevo León, Chihuahua), Nicaragua with Corn Island, Panama, Peru (Ancash), Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.

It is also found in the US state of Arizona and Venezuela (Mérida, Esqueda, La Marca).

Glossy Vine Snake

The gloss Vine Snake (Oxybelis fulgidus) reaches a size over 1.80 m. You can find them in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Pará), Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras,

Colombia, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Campeche), Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Surinam as well as Venezuela and Tobago.

Their poison is less strong and causes unpleasant local symptoms such as swelling, edema and pain as well as lymphangitis and lymph node swelling, but should be taken seriously.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Landsberg's

Stülpnsenotter The Landsberg's Stülpnsenotter (Porthidium lansbergii) is found in Panama, in the north of Colombia (from Nord-Choco and Antioquia, coastal Caribbean lowlands, and from Rio Magdalena valley, up to Honda, Tolima, Huila), on the island

Isla Margarita as well as in Venezuela.

There are three subspecies of the snake:

- Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni

- Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii

- Porthidium lansbergii rozei

Picados Spring Lance Viper

The Picados Spring Lance Viper (Atropoides picadoi) is found in Costa Rica and Panama.

Rainforest inverted-nosed viper

The rainforest inverted-nosed viper (Porthidium nasutum) is found in Mexico in the states of Chiapas, Vera Cruz and Yucatan, also in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, in Colombia in the Valle del Cauca and in Ecuador

Verrugosa Bushmaster

The Verrugosa Bushmaster (Lachesis acrochorda) occurs in Ecuador, Colombia and Panama.

The snake is very poisonous

Western inverted-

nosed viper The western inverted-nosed viper (Porthidium ophryomega) is found in Costa Rica, El Salvador, in western Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and in Mexico (Chiapas and Yucatan)

. There are no subspecies of the snake.

Central American Bushmaster

The Central American Bushmaster (Lachesis stenophrys) occurs in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama.

The snake can grow up to 3 m long, making it the longest venomous snake on the American continent. Its fangs are extremely long with a length of 3.5 cm.

Central American jumping

pit viper The Central American jumping pit viper (Atropoides mexicanus)

is found in Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, in the south of Mexico (Chiapas, Querétaro) as well as in Nicaragua and Panama

There are no subspecies of the snake.

More poisonous animals

Panama stumpy-footed frog

The Panama stubby -footed frog is also poisonous, as it indicates with its striking yellow-black coloration. In special skin glands it generates a poisonous secretion, which it secretes in case of danger. This property has earned it the name "poison dart frog", as various Indian tribes in South America prepare the tips of their hunting arrows with the poison. Interestingly, the frogs do not produce the poisonous substances themselves, but obtain them from their prey.

Poison Dart

Stark are toxic the poison dart frog, like the dwarf panama poison dart and the two-color phyllobates. Both are native to Panama.

The two-color leaf climber has the most effective of all poisons, since as little as 0.00001 g is fatal for an adult. Like the Panama stumpy foot frog, it belongs to the "poison dart frogs".

All of these poisonous frogs have a brightly shining skin color that is supposed to warn of their toxicity.

Birds

The birds of prey also include the fish buzzard, the magnificent eagle and the crested caracara, which belongs to the group of hawks, but all of them are rarely seen. The yellow-headed caracara and the turkey vulture are more common.

The best known are the parrots, but they are rarely seen in the wild. The scarlet macaw (arakanga) and the green-winged macaw are native to Panama. Both have a rainbow-colored plumage and are among the most colorful species.

The red-green red-headed macaw, the green-blue Bechstein's macaw, the yellow-blue yellow-breasted macaw and the green yellow-headed parrot are less colorful. Other common species are the toucans, hummingbirds, and the trogons.

The trogons include the quetzal, which with a body size of 10 cm has up to 1 m long tail feathers and was therefore hunted in the past and ultimately decimated. Its plumage made of iridescent green feathers is also striking. Today it can only be found in the tree hollows of the cloud forests.

The passerine birds are particularly well represented. They include, among others, the tyrants, the tanagers, the jeweled birds, the string birds and the starlings. The browbirds are a special kind of starch. They are noticeable by their long bag nests hanging from branches, as well as by their call, which sounds like a drop hitting the surface of the water.

Harpy

A very special bird of Panama is the harpy, which belongs to the buzzard-like. With its wingspan of 190 - 240 cm and a length of 80 - 100 cm, it is one of the most powerful birds of prey in the world and is threatened with extinction today. Their distinguishing feature is a broad head of feathers on the back of the head, which lies smoothly in normal condition, but struggles when excited.

She hunts along the woods and along river banks. Their diet consists of large vertebrates such as monkeys, sloths, possums, coatis, snakes, and iguanas.

Today you can only see them in the Darién rainforest, and only rarely there. The bird of prey takes its name from a mythical creature in Greek mythology. First storm demons and later ugly giant birds with female heads were called harpies.

Insects

Insects and invertebrates are very common in Panama. There are around 1,500 different species of butterflies alone. The most striking of them is the iridescent blue morpho butterfly, which can reach a wing span of 15 cm.

Other common insects are bees, wasps, grasshoppers, beetles, spiders, flies, and dragonflies, which have been named "devil horses". Diverse ant species and termites can also be found here.

The local mosquitoes are particularly unpleasant.

Panama: plants

Trees and forests

The Caribbean coast and the east of the country, a total of 45% of the country's area, are covered with tropical rainforests. However, the diversity of species is greatest in the higher elevations, at the transition into mountain and cloud forest.

On the Pacific side there is a sparse blanket of deciduous trees and grass plains or savannahs. There are more than 2,000 different species of tropical plants in Panama, such as palms and rubber trees.

The rubber tree, of which there are around 1,000 species, belongs to the mulberry family. Its home is Asia, but today it is common everywhere. In Central Europe it is often used as a houseplant. The tree has large, dark green and thick leaves and can grow up to 30 meters tall in nature. It has a dense, spreading crown and strong roots that run on the surface of the earth as well as numerous aerial roots.

A total of around 300 tree, 1000 orchid, 150 bromeliad and 100 fern species have been counted. The national flower of Panama is the peristeria, also known as the "flower of the Holy Spirit" or pigeon orchid. It has fleshy and ivory-colored petals but only blooms in September. The lip and the column have grown together and look like a flying dove, which is where the name "pigeon orchid" comes from. It grows on the edges of clearings and forests, as well as on slightly shaded slopes.

There are numerous types of lantana, as well as lilac jacaranda trees, acacias, mangrove species, the hibiscus, oleander, the red pancana and the ixora. The mangrove humid forest in the tidal range of the entire coast of the country is the largest in all of Central America. The Cuipo tree, which with its 45 - 60 meters towers above all other plants, is striking. Its rings on the bark are characteristic, as are the leaves that only grow at the top of the tree.

However, it sheds its leaves in extreme drought, and so you can see it bare most of the year. In its bottle-shaped, broadened trunk, it can store large amounts of water, whereupon flesh-colored flowers that are pollinated by bats develop.

Another tree of note is the strangler fig. It is a hemiepiphyte, which means that the rhizome (rhizome) of this plant rises up on tree trunks, but roots in the ground. By being anchored in the ground, the plant is supplied with nutrients and the aerial roots become thicker and lignified. When the roots touch, they fuse, creating a dense network around the host tree. In this way, its main vessels are pinched off and it dies. Therefore the trunk of the strangler fig is hollow inside.

Many trees in Panama are used as commercial timber, such as espave (Panama mahogany), which can grow up to 60 m high, and the Caribbean pine, a type of pine found in the lowlands. Another commercial wood is the approximately 15 m high cocobolo with its dark orange to deep red wood.

The madrono (strawberry tree) from the heather family is very common. It blooms from November to March and has glossy, laurel-like green leaves. Its strawberry-like fruits are edible, but they don't taste particularly good. The evergreen laurel tree from the laurel family is also often found.

Crops

Water can be obtained from the roots of the Cuipo tree by cutting off the roots, cleaning them and removing the bark. Then hold the clean end of the root to your mouth. You can also make ropes from the bark of the branches of young trees.

Another useful tree is the rubber tree. Ficus rubber is obtained from the white milky sap of its trunk.

Poisonous plants

The guarana bush from the soap tree family belongs to the poisonous plants. It is a tropical, evergreen, perennial climbing plant that grows up to 10 m high. The leaves are leathery and the flowers yellow to whitish. The special thing about the plant is the hazelnut-sized, deep yellow to red-orange-colored capsule fruit. A paste is made from the roasted seeds, which is then processed into stimulating soft drinks. However, as Parcelsus said, it depends on the dosage.

More plants

Ixora, a shrub-like plant of the madder family, comes from the Indian tropics. It has elongated, leather-like leaves and flowers with bright red umbels between May and September.

 

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