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Sao Tome and Principe

São Tomé and Príncipe: Political System

São Tomé and Príncipe is a presidential republic. The unicameral parliament, the National Assembly (Assembléia Nacional) consists of 55 members who are elected every four years. The head of state is directly elected every five years.

São Tomé and Príncipe: Political System

According to, the official name of the country is:

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

República Demokrática de São Tomé e Príncipe

National anthem

Independência Total (Absolute Independence) has been the national anthem of the island state of São Tomé and Príncipe since 1975. Alda Neves da Graça do Espírito Santo wrote the text, the music is by Manuel dos Santos Barreto de Sousa e Almeida.

In Portuguese


Independência total,

Glorioso canto do porvo,

Independência total,

Hino sagrado de combate.


Na luta nacional,

Juramento eterno

No pais soberano de São Tomé e Príncipe.

Guerrilheiro da guerra sem armas na mão,

Chama viva na alma do porvo,

Congregando os filhos das ilhas

Em redor da Pátria Imortal.

Independência total, total e completa,

Costruindo, no progresso e na paz,

A nação ditosa da Terra,

Com os braços heróicos do povo.


Independência total,

Glorioso canto do porvo,

Independência total,

Hino sagrado de combate.

Trabalhando, lutando, presente em vencendo,

Caminhamos a passos gigantes

Na cruzada dos povos africanos,

Hasteando a bandeira nacional.

Voz do porvo, presente, presente em conjunto,

Vibra rijo no coro da esperança

Ser herói no hora do perigo,

Ser herói no ressurgir do País.


Independência total,

Glorioso canto do porvo,

Independência total,

Hino sagrado de combate.


Na luta nacional,

Juramento eterno

No pais soberano de São Tomé e Príncipe.

In the English translation


Absolute independence

Glorious song of the people

Absolute independence

Hymn of bloody struggle


in the national struggle

Eternal oath

To the independent land of

São Tomé and Príncipe

Warrior of war without weapon in hand

Guard flame in the people's soul

Unite the island sons

Around the immortal home

Absolute independence, complete and complete

Building on progress and peace

The most devoted nation on earth

With the heroic arms of the people


Absolute independence

Glorious song of the people

Absolute independence

Anthem of bloody struggle

Working, fighting and victorious,

we walk with giant strides

On the crusade of the African peoples,

hoisting the national flag

People's voice, here and today together.

Sound strong in the name of hope

Be heroic in danger

Be heroic in the rise of the country


Absolute independence

Glorious song of the people

Absolute independence

Hymn of bloody struggle


in the national struggle

Eternal oath

To the independent land of

São Tomé and Príncipe

National flag

The national flag (national flag) of São Tomé and Príncipe was hoisted as the national flag on the occasion of the country's independence on July 12, 1975 and officially introduced on November 5 of the same year. Based on flag descriptions by, the three colors are interpreted as follows:

- Green symbolizes the vegetation and agriculture

- Red stands for the blood that was shed in the struggle for independence

- Yellow symbolizes the cultivation of cocoa

- the two stars symbolize the two islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, that make up the state

Sao Tome and Principe flag and coat of arms

São Tomé and Príncipe: Known People

Alda Bandeira Tavares Vaz da Conceição (born 1949)

The politician, who was born in Santana, was her country's foreign minister from 1991 to 1993 and from 2002 to 2003.

Manuel Pinto da Costa (born 1937)

The politician who was the first president of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1975 to 1991 held other offices in addition to his presidency and was faced with multiple coup attempts. After years of rapprochement with the East and socialist policies, since 1990 da Costa switched to a social democratic course.

Caetano da Costa Alegre (1864-1890)

The Portuguese poet from what was then the colony of São Tomé became famous in 1916 when his friend, Cruz Magalhãez, published the writings that Costa Alegre had written during his eight years in Portugal. In it, Costa Alegre expresses his longing for his homeland and describes feelings such as alienation and exile.

Miguel dos Anjos da Cunha Lisboa Trovoada (born 1936)

The Prime Minister, born in São Tomé in 1936 (1975-1979), served as President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1991 to 2001. His term of office was overshadowed by the poor economic situation in the country, often changing governments and political conflicts.

Maria da Conceição de Deus Lima (born 1961)

Conceição Lima, born in Santana in 1961, is a writer and journalist who started the newspaper O País Hoje in 1993. Her first book, O Útero da Casa (2004), immediately made her known as a post-colonial writer.

Fradique Melo de Menezes (born 1942)

The politician, born in 1942 in Água Telha, is currently the President of São Tomé and Príncipe. His term of office was marked by an attempted coup, which could be ended peacefully, as well as corruption allegations against him.

João de Santarém (???)

The Portuguese navigator and explorer João de Santarém discovered the island of São Tomé on December 21, 1471 and on January 17, 1472 the island of Príncipe, which he called São Antão.

Maria das Neves Ceita Baptista de Sousa (born 1958)

The politician was Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe from 2002 to 2004. A military coup took place during her tenure in 2003, but it was peacefully resolved. Corruption allegations were also raised against them

Alda Neves da Graça do Espírito Santo (1926-2010)

The Portuguese-speaking poet Alda do Espírito Santo was also active as a politician in her homeland São Tomé and Príncipe after it gained independence from Portugal in 1975. Alda do Espírito Santo was also the poet of the verses for the national anthem Independência total.

Sara Pinto Coelho (1913-1990)

Born in 1913, Sara Pinto Coelho grew up in Portugal and later became known as a poet of novellas, short stories and children's books in the Portuguese language.

Tomé Vera Cruz (born 1955)

The politician, who was born in São Tomé and Príncipe, served as Prime Minister of his country from April 2006 to February 2008 and thus as successor to Maria do Carmo Silveira. After his party's defeat in a budget vote, he resigned in 2008.

Sao Tome and Príncipe: Animals


There are few animals on the island, including monkey cats, the endemic São Tomé shrew. And there are quite a few rats that were brought in via the sailing ships of that time. Dogs, cats, goats and chickens also live here.


19 species of birds are endemic to São Tomé, so they can only be found here. These include brownlings, single-colored bullfinches, hard-leaved scops, long-tailed olive pigeons, Newton shrike, giant nectar birds, Sao-Tomé thrushes, Sao-Tomé-green pigeons, Sao-Tomé-barn-owls, Sao-Tomé-prinien, Sao-Tomé-dwarf fishermen, Black-fronted shrike, steel paradise flycatcher or dwarf olive ibis. There are also a large number of African gray parrots in the Obo National Park.

Underwater world

In the Gulf of Guinea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, the following large animal species live in alphabetical order:

- Blue whales

- Bryde's


- Humpback whales - Clymene dolphins

- Bottlenose dolphins

- Slender dolphins

- Striped dolphins

- Killer whales

- Chinstrap dolphins


Jameson Mamba

The very poisonous Jameson Mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni) lives on Principe. As a rule, the Jamesons mamba is about 2 m long - in rare cases even over 3 m. She is slim and very agile. They are green-yellow to grass-green in color, while the throat, belly and temples are lemon-yellow. Lighter and darker spots form indistinct, backward running transverse bands. The Jamesons Mamba is tree and ground dwelling. They are mainly found in rainforests and in humid and warm forests on river banks. But they can also be found near human settlements, on farmlands, and in urban parks.

São Tomé cobra

The very poisonous São Tomé cobra (Naja peroescobari) - also known colloquially as the black cobra - can only be found on São Tomé.

Frogs and chameleons also live here.

Sao Tome Principe: Plants

Obo is the island nation's only national park. It extends from the mangrove forests to the savannah and from the lowlands to the mountain forests. The national park takes its name from the Atlantic primary rainforest known as "Obo." More than 700 different plant species grow here, 100 of which are endemic, which means that they only occur on Sao Tomé and Principé.

In the northeast of São Tomé there is dry savannah, otherwise tropical rainforest grows. In the lower regions, palm trees were planted and cocoa plantations were established.

The endemic plant species include:

- the up to about 15 m high Afrocarpus mannii from the genus Afro-yellow wood (Afrocarpus)

- Angraecum doratophyllum from the genus comet


- Anisophyllea cabole - Balthasaria mannii

- Bulbophyllum lizae.

There are also giant begonias, tree ferns and unique orchids, up to 3 m high.






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