Armenia: Political System
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|Republic of Armenia
Armenia, which has been an independent republic since September 21, 1991, is
ruled by a President and the National Assembly. The members of this unicameral
parliament are elected every four years. The most influential parties in the
National Assembly are currently the Republican Party and the Armenian
Revolutionary Federation, founded in 1890. Under the President stands the Prime
Minister, who - enshrined in constitutional law since January 2006 - is
appointed by the President but confirmed by Parliament.
The war over the Nagorno-Karabakh region with Azerbaijan is an important part
of Armenian foreign policy, which is being waged without concessions. In 1998
the first president of the country, Levon Ter-Petrosyan, lost his head when he
was ready to make concessions to Azerbaijan. Robert Kocharyan, who acted against
the peace plan proposed by international mediators, won the early presidential
elections in 1998 and was re-elected in 2003.
Other important foreign policy goals of the country are ensuring national
security, improving the development of economic relations and, last but not
least, worldwide recognition of the genocide of the Armenians. In order to
achieve these goals, the country attaches great importance to good relations
with the USA, Russia, the EU and Iran. Due to the historical circumstances,
there are currently no official diplomatic contacts with Turkey, especially
since Turkey makes the republic's withdrawal from Nagorno-Karabakh a condition
for a diplomatic dispute with Armenia. (Status 02/2008)
Armenia's national anthem is called “Mer Hayrenik”, which means “Our
Fatherland” in German. The text is penned by Mikael Nalbandian (1829–1866) and
the melody goes back to Barsegh Kanachyan (1885–1967).
|In the original Armenian version
||Latinized Armenian text
||In the English translation
|Մեր Հայրենիք, ազատ, անկախ
Որ ապրէլ է դարէ դար
Իւր որդիքը արդ կանչում է
Ազատ, անկախ Հայաստան:Ահա ՝ եղբայր, քեզ մի դրօշ,
Որ իմ ձեռքով գործեցի
Գիշերները ես քուն չեղայ,
Արտասուքով լուացի:Նայիր նրան երեք գոյնով,
Նուիրական մէր նշան,
Թող փողփողի թշնամու դէմ,
Թող միշտ պանծայ Հայաստան:Ամենայն տեղ մահը մի է
Մարդ մի անգամ պիտ՚ մեռնի,
Բայց երանի՚ որ իւր ազգի
Ազատութեան կը զոհուի:
|Mer Hairenik, azad angakh,
Before aprel eh tareh tar
||: Ir before tika art kanchume eh
Azad, angakh haiastan.: || Aha yeghpair kez mi drosh,
Wor im tzerkov kordzetzi
||: Gischerne yes koon chega,
Arzunknerov lwazi.: || Nayir neran yerek gujnow,
Nuviragan mer nushan,
||: Togh poghpoghi duschmani tem,
Togh meesht bandza Haiastan.: || Amenayn degh maha mi eh
Mart mee arrived pti merni,
||: Baytz yerani before ir azgi
Asatuzjan ga tzohvi.: || Mer Hairenik, azat angakh,
Before aprel eh tareh tar
||: Ir before tika art kanschume eh
Azad, angakh haiastan.: ||
|Our fatherland, free and independent,
That lived from century to century
||: His children call
Free Independent Armenia.: || Here brother, a flag for you that
I made with my own hands,
||: On nights when I did not sleep,
I washed it with tears.: || Look at them, three colors
are our bestowal symbol.
||: Let them shine against our enemies.
Always let Armenia be honorable.: || Death is the same everywhere
Everyone dies only once
||: But happy is he who
is dedicated to his people.: || Our fatherland, free and independent,
That lived from century to century
||: His children call
Free Independent Armenia.: ||
The national flag of Armenia was first used during the period of the
Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922), but it was replaced by a flag
similar to the Soviet flag after Armenia was annexed to the USSR from
1922-1991. It was reintroduced on August 24, 1991. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the three colors of the flag
are interpreted as follows:
- Red reminds of the blood spilled during the struggle for independence
- Blue symbolizes the sky over the country
- Orange the prosperity of the people, which can only be brought about by work.
Armenia: important people
Chatschatur Abowjan (1809-1848)
The father of modern Armenian literature was the first writer to write his works
in New East Armenian, which for the first time replaced Old Armenian as the
literary language. He also translated classics such as Homer, Schiller, Goethe,
Karamsin and Krylow into Armenian.
Charles Aznavour (1924-2018)
Charles Aznavour (Vaghinak Aznavuryan) was born on May 22, 1924 in Paris, the
son of Armenian immigrants.
Aznavour is an Armenian-French chansonnier, songwriter, composer and film
actor. In December 2008 he received the Armenian citizenship. He was also the
Ambassador of Armenia to Switzerland and to the United Nations in Geneva. He
died on October 1, 2018 in Mouriès - in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the
Andrej Hovnanjan (born 1979)
The singer, known for a short time under the name "André", was born in
Stepanakert and is currently considered the most prominent pop artist in
Armenia. He was also allowed to represent his country at the Eurovision Song
Contest 2006 in Athens. Incidentally, he received the 8th place.
Aram Chatschaturjan (1903-1978)
Probably the most famous child of Armenia was this Soviet-Armenian composer, who
takes up influences from traditional Armenian and Caucasian folk music in his
works. In addition to his piano and violin concerto, he achieved worldwide fame
with the ballet "Gayaneh". His most popular opus - the "Saber Dance" - comes
from the latter.
Dschiwan Gasparjan (born 1928)
The instrumentalist and composer, who was born in Solag in Armenia, is
particularly famous as a duduk player. He achieved worldwide fame with his
soundtrack for the film "Gladiator". In 2010 he also played at the Eurovision
Song Contest in Oslo - as part of the Armenian contribution.
Sayat Nova (1722-1795)
Born in Tbilisi in 1722, the singer, poet, clergyman and composer is also known
as the “King of Song”. From his repertoire of several thousand songs,
unfortunately, only 220 have survived that can be assigned to him with
Anania von Mok (or Anania Mokac'i) (d.
The writer and so-called "Catholicos of the Armenians" was not only a famous
church reformer. He acted strictly against any Armenian rapprochement with the
Byzantines as well as against multi-confessional marriages.
Eznik von Kołb
This 5th century Armenian theologian was Bishop (Vardapet) of Bagrewand and is
counted among the holy Bible translators.
Mesrop Maschtoz (around 360-440)
The Armenian saint rendered an important service to Armenian, which had not been
a written language until then, with the development of an alphabet. With the
help of this alphabet he also translated parts of the Bible into
Armenian. Mesrop was also an important missionary of the Armenians.
Soghomon Gevorki Soghomonian (1869-1935)
This Armenian priest was not only a clergyman, but also a composer, singer,
choir musician, music teacher and musicologist. Nowadays he is often seen as the
founder of modern classical music in the country of Armenia.
Stephanos of Siunia (around 685-735)
Stephanos was appointed bishop of Siunia after 728. The author of many
exegetical commentaries and liturgical songs is said to have been killed in 735
by a prostitute who had been severely reprimanded by him several times.
Alexander Abraham (born 1981)
The light middleweight boxer born in the Armenian capital Yerevan is the younger
brother of Arthur Abraham. As an amateur he was able to win some regional
championship titles for himself, with his greatest success so far being the
International German Junior Light Welterweight Championship, which he
successfully finished in 1997.
Arthur Abraham (born 1980)
The boxer, born in 1980 as Avetik Abrahamjan in the Armenian capital city of
Yerevan, is the reigning (as of 02/2008) IBF middleweight world champion. He has
successfully defended this title four times so far. He is the older brother of
Tigran Petrosjan (1929-1984)
The Armenian-Soviet chess grandmaster was even world chess champion between 1963
and 1969. He is the only world champion in the history of this sport of thought
who managed to successfully defend his title against a future world champion (=
Cinema and theater
Armen Jigarchanjan (born 1935)
This nationally well-known Armenian actor was born on October 3, 1935 in
Yerevan. He celebrated great success in film and since 1969 at the Mayakovsky
Theater in Moscow. One of his last international cinema roles is his role as the
mafia father in Ligne de vie from 1996.
Artavazd Pelechian (born 1938)
Artavazd Pelechian was born on February 22, 1938 in Leninakan, the largest city
in the country with around 172,000 residents. The Armenian filmmaker, who
attended the film school in Moscow from 1963, impresses above all with his
innovative assembly technology.
Frunsik Mkrtschjan (1930-1993)
Born on July 4, 1930, the Soviet theater and film actor Frunsik Mkrtschjan
(Frunsik (Mher) Muscheghi Mkrtchjan) worked as a folk artist in both the
Armenian SSR and the USSR. He died on December 29, 1993 in Yerevan.
Sergei Iossifowitsch Paradschanow (1924-1990)
Sergei Iossifowitsch Paradschanow was born on 9. Born January 1924 in Tbilisi in
what is now Georgia. This Armenian "cinema rebellion" can be counted among the
most original directors of the 20th century. In his works the entire ethnic
diversity of the Caucasus is taken into account. He died on July 21, 1990 in
Although Armenia is a small country with very little rainfall, the
biodiversity is still quite large. There are also endemic species here, so they
only occur here.
The Armenian mouflon - also known as Armenian wild sheep (Ovis
gmelini) - can be found in the Caucasus, in the northwest of the Iras and in the
southern part of Asia Minor. The head-trunk length of the animals is between 120
and 140 cm, with a shoulder height of 85 to 95 cm. The horns, up to 68 cm long,
are curved backwards in a snail shape, while the females are partially hornless.
Lynx, martens, mink, roe deer, red deer, jackals, wild cats, wild
boars and wolves also live in the whale areas. In addition, the Caucasian
leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), which is unfortunately threatened with
extinction, also occurs in the west, in the nature reserve Chosrow.
Long-eared hedgehogs, gerbils and horse jumpers also have their home here.
There are around 350 different species of birds in the country, including
eagles, falcons, vultures and gulls. In the warmer and extremely dry areas in
the south-west of the country you can also find bee-eaters and goat milkers. In
the west of the country, on the border with Turkey, are the floodplains of the
Arax River. There are numerous rather smaller lakes with an area of 10 to
2,000 hectares and a depth of up to 2 m. Here you can find the endangered bird
species such as Armenian gulls, oystercatchers, brown ibis, spoonbills, marbled
ducks, avocets and stilts.
There are relatively many reptiles in Armenia, such as lizards and snakes,
that can cope well with the drought.
Here is a selection:
- Armenian mountain otter
the Armenian mountain otter (Montivipera raddei)
- Armenian field lizard
The Armenian field lizard ()
- Armenian meadow viper
The Armenian meadow viper (Vipera Eriwanensis) has the
following subspecies "Vipera eriwanensis eriwanensis" and "Vipera
eriwanensis ebneri" and is found next to Armenia in northwestern Iran and
northeastern Turkey. The snake reaches a length between 40 to 55
cm. Although the snake's poison is quite effective, the poisoning symptoms
are rather weak due to the small amount of poison released.
adder The Darevski's adder (Vipera darevskii) is only found in the Javakheti
mountain range in the border region of Armenia. It is endemic to it. This
snake from the genus Vipera reaches a length between about 25 to 50 cm, with
the females being larger than the males. The basic color is yellowish to
grayish-yellow with a back drawing made of a wide and uniform zigzag
band. The sides of the body have dark spots that merge into one another. The
ventral side is dark gray with black speckles. The top of the narrow head,
well set off from the body, is dark and there are two crescent-shaped
stripes on the neck. A dark band of temples stretches over the eyes. Their
venom is comparable to that of the adder and affects blood coagulation
- European lizard snake
A detailed description of the European lizard snake (Malpolon
monspessulanus) can be found here >>>
- Caucasian Otter
A detailed description of the Caucasus Otter (Vipera kaznakovi)
- Levant Otter
A detailed description of the Levant Otter (Macrophia lebetina) can be
found here >>>
Wrath Snake The Ravergier's Wrath Snake (Hemorrhois ravergieri) is also
known as the Colorful Wrath Snake.
Over 3,000 species of plants grow in Armenia, which is more than half of the
species found in the entire Caucasus region.
In the whole of Europe there are - for comparison - about 20,000 and North
America about 40,000 species.
The area of Armenia is therefore very species-rich despite its relatively
small size of 29,800 km². These include a number of endemic species that are
only found here. In the Kura-Macaw lowlands, where the Terter flows into the
Kura, the typical trees of floodplains can be found and plants of the genus
Artemisia are often found up to a height of about 1,400 m, including the species
mugwort, wormwood, Rodwort or rue belong.
Many thorny bushes and other prickly plants such as thistles, but also alpine
meadows with wild flowers grow in the mountainous regions. The most common trees
are oak, beech and pine.
There are also small untouched fields of wild grain, which are considered to be
the forerunners of the first cultivated grains of the ancient world, which were
cultivated about 12,000 to 15,000 ago.
It is certainly of interest that the peach and apricot originated in
Armenia. The apricot was brought to Greece by Alexander the Great (356 BC to
323), from where it had spread further. Other fruits from Armenia are apples,
pears, cherries, plums, pomegranates and a large number of different types of
There are cotton plants in the Ararat plain.