Botswana: Political System
Botswana is a presidential republic in the Commonwealth. The bicameral
parliament consists of the National Assembly with 40 members elected every five
years and the consultative House of Chiefs with 15 members. The direct election
of the head of state takes place every five years; re-election is possible once.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is Botswana after the name of the Foreign
Office, but internationally one speaks of Botswana.
|Republic of Botswana
Republic of Botswana
Fatshe leno la rona ("Blessed be this noble land") has been
the national anthem of Botswana since 1966.
Text and music were written by Kgalemang Tumedisco Motsete.
||In the English translation
|Blessed be this noble land,
Gift to us from God's strong hand,
Heritage our fathers left to us.
May it always be at peace.CHORUSA wake, awake, O men, awake!
And women close beside them stand,
Together we'll work and serve
This land, this happy land! Word of beauty and of fame,
The name Botswana to us came.
Through our unity and harmony,
We'll remain at peace as one.
|Blessed be this noble land,
gift for us from God's strict hand.
The inheritance of our fathers was left to us.
May it always be at peace.REFRAINWake up, wake up, oh men, wake up!
And women stand close by them,
together we will work and serve
this country, this happy country! Word of Beauty and Fame
The name Botswana came to us.
Through our unity and harmony,
we stay united and in peace.
The national flag (country flag) of Botswana was officially introduced on
September 30th - Independence Day.
Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag are interpreted as follows:
- Blue symbolizes the sky, the water and the rain and comes from the coat of
arms of Botswana, in which the word "rain" is written.
- The white and and the black stripe and black represent the harmony between the
different ethnic groups.
Most mammals can only be seen in Botswana's nature reserves and protected
Giraffes, zebras and impalas (black heel antelopes) live
alongside lions and cheetahs in the Moremi Reserve on the Okawango
Delta. Impalas are characterized by their up to 9 m wide and 3 m high
jumps. The two black stripes on the otherwise light brown rump are also
characteristic. The up to 90 cm long horns are only found in the males. Impalas
are widespread throughout the southern part of Africa.
The annual zebra migration between the Savuti and Chobe rivers is remarkable.
The Okawango Delta is also home to numerous mammals such as the kudu,
buffalo, reed, lechwes (bog antelope) and the red lychee, another antelope
species, which is actually native to South Africa. Botswana also has the
largest elephant population in Africa, which you can admire in the northeast of
The most common mammals in the country include spotted hyenas, hippos,
springboks, numerous species of antelope, including the oryx, warthogs and honey
badgers, cape buffalo and baboons.
Reptiles, poisonous snakes
Both Nile monitors and Nile crocodiles can be found in the
Moremi Reserve in the Okawango Delta.
The Nile monitorcan, if you add the tail, reach a length of
2.30 m. It has a greenish-black color and prefers to stay in damp habitats. The
captured animals are eaten whole, with bird and crocodile eggs at the top of the
menu. The leopard tortoise, which can grow up to 68 cm, can be found
predominantly in bushland and dry savannah landscapes. The non-toxic rock
python, lizards such as the speckled desert lizard and the savanna lizard as
well as the leopard tortoise, geckos and chameleons also live in the country. In
Botswana you can also find a total of 70 different species of snakes, including
the following venomous snakes:
- Anchieta cobra
- Banded cobra
- Horned puff adder
- Common puff adder
- Cape cobra
- Mozambique spitting cobra
- Black mamba
Poisonous animals (without snakes)
Different species of the thick-tailed scorpion family can be
found predominantly in eastern Botswana.
Children are particularly at risk from stings, as there have already been
deaths, mainly from respiratory failure. The poisoning begins with severe nausea
and vomiting, followed by sweating, increased salivation, feelings of weakness
and occasionally cramps. Visiting a clinic is highly recommended.
Most of the bird species, of which there are up to 600, congregate in the
These include the Klunkerkranich, the African scissor beak, the saddle stork,
the yellow-bellied bulbul and the bee-eater. Ospreys, cormorants, ibises,
cranes, secretaries and maraboos are particularly common in the marshland.
After the rains, pelicans and flamingos gather at the Makgadikgaki salt
pans. The latter form a family of their own and are also common in parts of
South America, western Asia and southern France. The up to 130 cm tall birds are
immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by
their thick, downward-curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a sieve
when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all, small
crustaceans. They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the
flamingos. The red dye absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After
all, the more crabs the birds have eaten, the more pink they are. The famous
one-legged standing is used to store heat, because one leg is hidden in the warm
plumage and there is less heat loss. This feat is not strenuous for the
flamingos (as well as for storks).
Other bird species found in Botswana are the red-bellied shrike, the
red-beaked toko, fish eagle, swallowtail spider, gun kibit and ostrich.
The best way to protect yourself against the tsetse fly,
which is particularly common in the rainy season, is to wear light, thick
clothing. Your bite is noticeable by a large swelling and later by a headache
and fever. A visit to the doctor is inevitable, as this fly is the vector of
sleeping sickness. The malaria-transmitting anopheles mosquito is widespread
south of the Sahara. The most important precautionary measure is to avoid bites
with mosquito creams, mosquito sprays and suitable clothing.
A common type of acacia is the camel thorn acacia and the button
thorn, which has characteristic outgrowths on the trunk. The pods of
the fruits of the camel thorn acacia are eaten by elephants and rhinos because
they are very nutritious. Mostly it grows on the edge of river beds.
In the Kalahari are particularly baobabs called baobabs,
commonly seen. This tree with its strikingly shaped trunk and silver-gray bark
belongs to the wool tree family and can live up to 1000 years. Furthermore, it
is characterized by its cucumber-shaped and wood-skinned fruits as well as fatty
seeds. The baobab can store up to 5000 liters of water in the dry season, but
then it loses all of its leaves in order to protect itself from excessive
evaporation and thus from dying of thirst.
Other trees found in Botswana are the liver sausage tree,
which bears this name thanks to its sausage-like fruits, as well as the
approximately 10 m tall jackalberry with its purple fruits and creamy white
Useful and medicinal plants
The Makalaui palm, an African fan palm, can be used in
many ways. Wine is made from its juice, for example, and fences, baskets and
hats are made from the fronds.
A mixture of the rind and the juice of the sycamor fig is used locally for sore
throats and chest pains.
In dry savannas like the Kalahari, bushes, grasses and thorn bushes are
noticeably dominant. Flowers, palm trees, reeds and papyrus thrive in the
Okawango Delta. To protect against predators, the lithops, so-called living
stones, have taken on the outer shape of stones. They actually consist of two
leaves that have grown together and belong to the ice plant family.