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Brazil

Brazil: Political System

Brazil: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Republica Federativa do Brasil

(Federative Republic of Brazil)

National anthem

The Brazilian national anthem is: HINO NACIONAL DO BRASIL. The music is by Francisco Manuel da Silva (1795 - 1865) and the text by Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada (1870 - 1927). The melody was played in public for the first time on the occasion of the accession to the throne of the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II in 1831 and officially accepted as an anthem on January 20, 1890. The text has been official since September 7th, 1922.

In the original

1st stanza

Ouviram do Ipiranga às margens plácidas

De um povo heróico o brado retumbante,

E o sol da liberdade, em raios fúlgidos,

Brilhou no céu da Pátria nesse instante.

Se o penhor dessa igualdade

Conseguimos conquistar com braço forte,

Em teu seio ó liberdade,

Desafia o nosso peito a própria morte!Ó Pátria amada

Idolatrada

Salve! Volley!Brasil de um sonho intenso, um raio vívido,

De amor e de esperança à terra desce

Se em teu formoso céu risonho e límpido

A imagem do Cruzeiro resplandece

Gigante pela própria natureza

És belo, és forte, impávido colosso,

E o teu espelha essa grandezaTerra adorada!

Entre outras mil

És tu, Brasil,

Ó Pátria amada

Dos filhos deste solo és mãe gentil,

Pátria amada

Brasil!

And in the English translation

1st stanza

On the calm banks of the "Ipiranga" one heard

the cry of a heroic people echoing,

with a flashing ray the sun of freedom appeared

in the sky of our homeland at this moment.

If

we succeed in fighting this equality pledge with a strong arm,

on your bosom, oh freedom,

our breast will defy even our own death!Oh, beloved homeland,

dear

ones, greetings!Brazil, in a deep dream, a shining flash

of love and hope descends on earth,

when in your beautiful sky, smiling and clear,

the image of the Southern Cross outshines everything.

A giant by nature,

you are beautiful and strong, an intrepid colossus,

and this greatness is reflected in your future.Dear earth,

among many thousands

you are, Brazil,

the beloved homeland!

You are a caring mother,

beloved homeland,

Brazil, to the children of this soil !

National flag

The first draft of a national flag was presented when the Brazilian Republic was founded on November 15, 1889. It was a copy of the North American national flag, decorated with green and yellow stripes to symbolize the united Brazilian states. Only four days later, on November 19, 1889, General Benjamin Constant submitted a new draft. Voices from São Paulo in particular were loud in those days calling for a flag with stronger national references.

Based on the positivism of the French philosopher Auguste Comte (1789-1857), love as a principle, order as the basis and progress as the goal were defined as the basis for national development. Order as the basis and progress as the goal can also be found in the famous motto of the national flag "Ordem e Progresso" order and progress. The color scheme of the "Bandeira Brasileira" also takes on Brazilian realities and visions of the future. The flat green stands for forest and nature, the yellow diamond for riches, the blue circle for the sky and the white for peace.

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the 27 stars stand for the states and the government district (based on a snapshot of the starry sky over Rio de Janeiro). The hour of the republic is repeated every year at the moment when this celestial event can be viewed. However, the sky of the flag is mirror-inverted and otherwise idealized. In reality there are of course many more stars to be seen in the area of the night sky shown.

Brazil flag and coat of arms

Famous pepole

  • Lúcio Costa (1902-1998)

    Brazilian architect and urban planner, born in Toulon/France, graduated in architecture from the University of Fine Arts in Río de Janeiro in 1924, was director of the same university from 1930; planned together with Oscar Niemeyer the construction of the Brazil Pavilion for the World Exhibition in New York in 1939, he became known worldwide for the plan to build Brazil; The builder was appointed for this undertaking in 1957

  • Oscar Niemeyer (Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho) (1907- 2012)

    representative of the architecture avant-garde of Brazil, he planned the construction of the Sambodromo in 1984, which can accommodate around 60,000 people; In 1957 he planned the construction of the Biennale Pavilion and, together with Lúcio Costa, designed the details of the retort city of Brasilia. He is an important representative of Brazilian modern architecture and is particularly famous for his daring designs; Overall, he planned more than 600 (built) buildings and received numerous awards for his work, including the Golden Lion of the Biennale di Venezia (1963) and the Prince of Asturias Prize (1989) .

    He died on December 5, 2012 in the city of his birthRío de Janeiro.

  • Roberto Burle Marx (1909-1994)

    landscape architect, painter, botanist, collector and connoisseur of South American plants, already occupied himself with plants as a child and was particularly fascinated by the botanical gardens when he was in Germany with his parents and family from 1928-29; As a friend of Lúcio Costa, he was commissioned in 1938 with the design of the roof garden and the terrace of the Ministry of Education and Health in Río de Janeiro, in whose building plans Niemeyer and Costa were also involved, this building is considered a milestone in modern architecture in Brazil,

    Burle Marx was also played a key role in the design of Brasilia involved, but his most personal and important work was "Sítio Santo Antônio da Bica" - a mixture of botanical garden, tree nursery, studio and country house

  • Milton Nascimento (born 1942)

    is one of the best-known representatives of modern Brazilian music based on Brazilian jazz - Bossa Nova, he was also known as a falset singer and was nominated three times for a Grammy, and has

    performed with international stars such as Peter Gabriel and Paul Simon and won the Best World Music Album category in 1998

  • Chico César (Francisco César Gonçalves) (born 1964)

    journalist, musician, composer and writer, studied journalism and linguistics and later music and then gave up journalism for music. In 1991 he toured Germany for the first time; his music moves between the styles of funk, reggae and folklore and shows a lot of Caribbean, African and European influences, hits like "A primeira vista" and "Mama africa" made the Putumayo artist known worldwide; still Chico César is next to Carlinhos Brown the best known representative of popular music Brazil s

  • Gilberto Gil (Gilberto Passos Gil Moreira) (born 1942)

    musician and politician, belonged in the 1960s to the tropicalism movement, which criticized the conditions in Brazil at the time; During the military dictatorship he lived in exile in London for two years; his fusion of traditional Brazilian music with pop led quickly to success, he won the Grammy for best world music in the album category with "Quanta gente veio ver", as well as eleven gold records and five times platinum

  • João Gilberto (Prado pereira de Oliveira) (born 1931)

    singer, composer, guitarist

    , along with Antônio Carlos Jobim, is the inventor of bossa nova, a combination of samba and jazz; his single "The girl from Ipanema" and the album "Getz/Gilberto" made him and the Bossa Nova style famous (1964), in 1965 he received a Grammy for this album and the single won the annual award

  • Joaquim Carvalho Cruz (born 1963)

    former Brazilian athlete from Brasilia, won gold at the Olympic Games in LA in 1984, bronze at the World Athletics Championships in 1983 and silver in the 800 m at the 1988 Olympics in Seoul

  • Kaká (born 1982)

    is a Brazilian soccer player who was born in Brasilia as Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite and currently plays in the first Italian soccer league for AC Milan

  • Lucimar da Silva Ferreira (born 1978)

    Brazilian soccer player from Brasilia; he is better known by his nickname Lúcio

  • Márcio Amoroso dos Santos (born 1974)

    Brazilian football player from Brasilia; he was considered one of the best strikers on earth in the late 1990s

  • Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva (born 1989 in Pato Branco)

    The football player Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva is known by his player name Alexandre Pato or Pato for short

  • Mariana Ohata (born 1978)

    Triathlon athlete from Brasilia

  • Rebeca Braga Lakiss Gusmão (born 1984)

    freestyle swimmer from Brasilia

  • Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco (1815 - 1888)

    Italian priest and founder of the order, who is usually only called "Don Bosco"; he is the patron saint of Brazil

  • Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (1902-1976)

    President of Brazil from 1956-1961; studied medicine in Minas Gerais, in 1939 he became mayor of the capital of Minas Gerais, during his medical career he worked in Paris, Vienna and Berlin and as a surgeon in Brazil; his biggest project during his reign was the founding of Brasília, the new capital that has arisen in the previously deserted center of Brazil; he died in 1976 in a car accident that has not yet been resolved.

  • Tancredo de Almeida Neves (1910 - 1985)

    Brazilian politician who was elected President of Brazil in 1985 after twenty years of military rule, but who died before he took office

Attractions

Major cities in the country

São Paulo

São Paulo has around 11 million residents, making it the largest city in the country. The metropolitan region even has 18 million residents, making it one of the largest in the world. It is the economic, financial and cultural center of Brazil. São Paulo is located in the southeast of the country about 75 km from the Atlantic Ocean. In this city everyone will find something to their liking, be it culture or the intoxicating nightlife.

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro has approx. 6.1 million residents, the metropolitan area has as many as 11.6 million residents and was the capital of Brazil until 1960. Rio de Janeiro is located in southeastern Brazil on Guanabara Bay on the Atlantic Ocean. As a cosmopolitan metropolis, the city offers sights from many cultures.

In 2016 the Summer Olympics will take place in Rio de Janeiro.

Salvador da Bahia

Salvador is the third largest city in Brazil with around 3.3 million residents. Until 1763 the city was the capital of the country. The city is located in the east of the country on the Atlantic coast.

Brasília

Brasília is the capital of Brazil with around 2.4 million residents. The city in the center of the country on a high plateau.

Manaus

Manaus has about 1.6 million residents and is the capital of the state of Amazonas. The city is located on the Rio Negro River in the northwestern part of the country. Because of this location, the landscape enchants every visitor.

Porto Alegre

Porto Alegre has around 1.4 million residents, making it the largest city in southern Brazil. This city is located in the extreme south of the country on the Atlantic coast.

Special buildings

Petrópolis

About 60 kilometers north of the city, at an altitude of 840 meters, in the midst of breathtaking nature, is the city of "Petrópolis". Although it has about 300,000 residents, it is quiet and contemplative. In the 19th century this was the residence of Emperor Pedro II. A museum is housed in the former imperial villa. The great Austrian writer Stefan Zweig died in Petrópolis in 1942, and he is still remembered in the Casa Stefan Zweig, a museum that was established in the last home of the writer and his wife.

Casa do Grito, São Paolo

This building is located in Parque Independência and was built using old reed construction. The house, which can be verified for the first time in 1884, has been a listed building since 1975.

Congresso Nacional, Brasilia

The Brazilian bicameral congress consists of the Senate (= Senado Federal or Upper House) and the Chamber of Deputies (= Câmara dos Deputados or Lower House). Both chambers are located in the center of the capital in a functional building that was built by Oscar Niemeyer in the style of modern Brazilian architecture. In addition to the actual main building, the Congresso Nacional building also includes offices and other buildings, some of which are connected by a tunnel.

Edifício Italiano, São Paulo

This 38-storey commercial building in the center of São Paulo, built in the style of modern Brazilian architecture from the 1950s, has a panoramic terrace with a restaurant on the top floor. From the roof terrace you have a breathtaking view of the seemingly endless expanse of the "cement jungle" of the huge metropolis of São Paulo. The restaurant has a minimum consumption which is very expensive by Brazilian standards, but affordable for Europeans.

Hotel Unique, São Paolo

On Avenida Brigadeiro Luiz Antônio you can visit the luxurious Hotel Unique. There you get free entry to the roof, from which you get fascinating impressions of the area around the Parque Ibirapuera, especially at night.

Monument of Independence, São Paolo

In Parque Independência is the gigantic Independence Monument, which was inaugurated on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Brazilian independence in 1922. The Italian sculptor Ettore Ximenez designed it, with the tombs of the Brazilian emperor Dom Pedro I and his two wives Leopoldina and Amélia in the interior.

Paço Imperial, Rio de Janeiro

The colonial palace was built in 1735. Since then it has served as a residence for governors and viceroys. After his flight from Portugal, King João VI. the palace to his seat. After him his son, Pedro II., lived in it as emperor Brazil s. Princess Isabella proclaimed the abolition of slavery in the palace in 1888. In addition to the living rooms, an old mint can be visited.

Palácio da Alvorada, Brasilia

The Palace of the Beginning is the official residence of the Brazilian President. It was designed by Oscar Niemeyer and opened in 1958. The unusual name goes back to a saying by the former President Juscelino Kubitschek, who once said: "Brasilia is a new beginning in the history of Brazil." The palace was one of the first larger constructions in the planned capital and is located on a peninsula on the Shores of Lake Paranoá. The glass building with its thin columns has an area of 7,000 m² and extends over three floors.

Palácio do Catete, Rio de Janeiro

The representative palace served as the seat of government from 1897 to 1960. After the capital was moved to Brasília in 1960, a museum was set up and the palace opened to visitors.

Palácio do Itamaraty, Rio de Janeiro

The President of Brazil resided in the 19th century palace from 1889 to 1899. It then housed the Foreign Ministry, which remained there until 1960 when the capital was moved to Brasilia. Today the "Museum of Diplomacy" is housed in the building.

Palácio do Planalto, Brasilia

The “palace on the plateau is the official workplace of the president and is located on Praça dos Três Poderes. While the head of Brazil only works in Planalto, he lives with his family in the Palácio da Alvorada. In addition to the President, the Vice President also has his office in Planalto, which has a floor space of 36,000 m². The palace can only be visited on Sundays between 9.30 a.m. and 1 p.m.

Palácio Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro

The town hall, built in 1923, is richly decorated. Four bronze gates lead into the interior of the building.

Palácio Tiradentes (La Assambléia), Rio de Janeiro

The former Brazilian parliament building now houses the regional parliament of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The magnificent, neoclassical building was built in 1926.

Pateo do Colegio, São Paulo

The Pateo at Praça Pátio do Colégio is the historic Jesuit school at the point where São Paulo is said to have been founded in 1554.

Praça dos Três Poderes, Brasilia

The “Square of the Three Powers” takes its unusual name from the buildings that surround it and represent the powers of the state. The executive branch is represented by the Palácio do Planalto, the legislative branch by the Congresso Nacional and the judicial branch by the Palácio da Justiça. The square, which is dominated by a 100 meter high flagpole in the center, is one of the most popular tourist attractions and was designed by the famous architects Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer. In addition to the buildings mentioned, the following constructions can be visited on the square:

• Panteão da Pátria (Fatherland banner)

• Lúcio Costa Space

• Pombal (sculpture by Niemeyer)

• Justice (by Alfredo Ceschiatti)

• Os Candangos (by Bruno Giorgi)

Solar da Marquesa de Santos, São Paolo

This building is regarded as the last example of urban residential architecture from the 18th century in the center of the metropolis. The old building was converted into one of the most aristocratic residences in the 19th century. It was also famous as the “Palacete do Carmo”. The collection of the “Museu da Cidade” is located in the historical building.

Confeitaria Colombo, Rio de Janeiro

The Art Nouveau Confeitaria Colombo on "Rua Gonçalves Dias" is considered the most beautiful café in Rio de Janeiro.

Edifício Copan, São Paulo

Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, one of the architectural fathers of the capital Brasilia, the Edifício Copan rises majestically like a landmark over the roofs of São Paulo. Built in 1950, around 5,600 people live in the 1,160 apartments.

Edifício do Banespa, São Paulo It is

161 meters high, this high-rise building of the Banco do Estado, built between 1939 and 1947. The 35-story colossus also includes a museum and a viewing platform that is open to the public. The building is also seen as São Paulo's “Empire State Building”.

Edifício Itália, São Paulo

This 168 meter high skyscraper, which was designed by Franz Heep, is located on Avenida Ipiranga. The high-rise, constructed between 1956 and 1965, not only has a free viewing deck, but also a fantastic panorama restaurant on the 45th floor.

TV Tower, Brasilia

The Lúcio Costa project is 224 meters high, making it the tallest structure in the city. From a platform 75 meters high you have a wonderful view over the Plano Piloto. From here you should be able to see the most beautiful sunset in Brazil in the evenings. The television tower can be found on the monumental axis near the old bus station.

Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge (also President JK Bridge or JK Bridge), Brasilia

The bridge over the artificial Paranoá Lake was named after Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, the former president and founder of modern Brazil. The structure, created by Alexandre Chan and Mário Vila Verde, consists of asymmetrical steel arches and is around 1,200 meters long. In 2002 the bridge was completed. It can also be used by pedestrians, cyclists and skaters.

Mirante do Vale, São Paulo

At 170 meters, this building is the tallest skyscraper in the city. It bears its name first since 1988. Before it was known as Palacio Zarzur Kogan.

Ponte Rio Niterói, Rio de Janeiro

The 13,290 meter long and 20 meter wide bridge was inaugurated in 1974. It connects Rio de Janeiro with the city of Niterói on the other side of the bay. Its official name is "President Costa e Silva Bridge".

Christo Redentor

The Christo Redentor ("Christ the Redeemer") is a 30 m high monument of Jesus Christ, which stands on the 700 m high Corcovado mountain in the middle of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The breathtaking stature became the symbol of the "City of God" ("Cidade de Deus"). 1921, The stature was created in 1921 by the Polish sculptor Paul Landowsky. There is a train to the lower platform of the monument and the option of taking a taxi or car to get there. The last stretch up to the stature can be done on foot (222 steps), with the elevator or with the escalator.

Museums

In Brasilia

Cultural complex of the republic

Right next to the futuristic cathedral, this museum was opened in 2006, which exhibits exhibits on the space age.

In São Paulo

Museum of Modern Art (MASP)

The Museum of Modern Art (MASP) on Avenida Paulista has the most important art collection in South America and houses both permanent and temporary exhibitions. The futuristic building was designed by the Italian architect Lina Bo in the 1960s.

Museu de Arte Sacra

The colonial-style Museu de Arte Sacra houses one of the most extensive collections of sacred art in Brazil with around a thousand exhibits. These include altars, paintings, furniture, chalices, crosses and sculptures from the 16th to 20th centuries.

Museu de Arte Contemporanea

Parque Ibirapuera is home to the Museu de Arte Contemporanea, which contains a collection of Western and South American modern art, including exhibits by Picasso and Mondigliani. The park also houses the building of the Biennale, founded in 1951, the second oldest biennale in the world based on the Venice model. The pavilion for the biennial world exhibition of contemporary art was designed by the architects Oscar Niemeyer and Hélio Uchôa and houses both national and international art and installations. Since 1973 there has also been an international biennial for architecture and design there.

In Rio de Janeiro

Museu Chácara do Céu

The Museu Chácara do Céu shows works by Pablo Picasso and other modern masters such as Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani and Claude Monet.

Museu Nacional de Belas Artes

The Museu Nacional de Belas Artes (the National Museum of Fine Arts) houses a collection of European painting from the 18th and 19th centuries and a collection of works by Brazilian artists from the 19th and 20th centuries.

Museu Histórico Nacional

The Museu Histórico Nacional is one of the few remaining buildings from the 16th century. The family of Kings Pedros I and Pedros II resided here from 1808 to 1889. It contains extensive holdings on Brazilian history. You can find exhibits on zoology and botany as well as on the archeology and ethnology of the country.

Museu da República

The Museu da República, one of the best in Rio de Janeiro, is located in the Catete district south of the city center, near the "Catete" underground station.

Teatro Municipal

In the city center on Avenida Rio Branco is the magnificent Teatro Municipal, which was built in 1909 as a reduced version of the Paris Opera. In the basement there is the "Café do Teatro" with mosaics in the Assírio Hall.

Biblioteca Nacional

Also on Avenida Rio Branco is the Biblioteca Nacional (opened in 1910). It was fully restored in 1995 and contains the largest library in South America.

Museu de Arte Contemporânea

The Museu de Arte Contemporânea, inaugurated in 1996, houses a large collection of contemporary art from 1950 to the present day.

Theaters and opera houses

Theatro Municipal

In Rio de Janeiro.

_

Theatro Amazonas

In Manaus.

Theatro Pedro II

In Ribeirão Preto. Wire Opera House In Curitiba.

Monuments

Juscelino Kubitschek monument

This museum is located on the western part of the Monumentalaxe and is dedicated to the life and work of the former Brazilian president. Pictures, documents and personal items can be seen here. The Kubitschek's chamber of deaths is also located in the building.

Tancredo Neves Monument, Brasilia

This monument to freedom and democracy celebrates all national heroes and especially former President Tancredo Neves. The monument was designed by Oscar Niemeyer and shows a collection of works by great artists. Among them are, for example, Athos Bulcão, João Câmara and Marianne Peretti.

Churches, temples, monasteries

Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora Aparecida, Brasilia

This sacred building, named after the basilica in Aparecida, goes back to the designs of the famous architect Oscar Niemeyer. The hyperboloid construction is extremely interesting and, with its glass roof, seems to reach into the sky. The cathedral, completed in 1970, impresses with 16 identical columns, each weighing 90 tons and symbolizing two hands as they turn to heaven. The cathedral was inaugurated on May 31, 1970.

Catedral Metropolitana, Rio

Avenida República do Chile 245, Centro In

1976 the futuristic cathedral was inaugurated. Allegedly modeled on a Mexican pyramid, the imposing cone-shaped building rises 96 meters high.

Catedral Metropolitana da Sé, São Paulo

The clearly largest church and main cathedral of São Paulo was built between 1913 and 1954 in the architectural style of neo-Gothic. It is dominated by its two towers, each of which protrudes 92 meters into the air. Inside is the largest in South America, the Italian organ.

Convento de San Antonio, Rio

Largo da Carioca 5

The Franciscan monastery dates from the 18th century. The sacristy is considered to be one of the most beautiful in Brazil.

Igreja da Candelária, Rio

Praça Pio X, Centro

The base of the church from the 18th century has the shape of a cross. The richly decorated facade, into which a huge bronze gate is let, is impressive, through which the church is entered.

Igreja de São Francisco de Penitência, Rio

Largo da Carioca 5

In the church of the adjoining Franciscan monastery "Convento de San Antonio" there are impressive ceiling paintings from the 18th century.

Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Penha, Rio

Largo da Penha 19, Penha Circular

Located on a hill, the baroque church can be reached via a staircase with 365 steps. It is a popular destination for pilgrims, especially in October.

Igreja Dom Bosco, Brasilia

The modern church was built by the city of Brasilia in honor of its patron saint Johannes Bosco. Bosco was a 19th century Italian priest who is said to have foreseen the founding of Brazil in his writings. Probably the most impressive thing about the church is the huge crystal chandelier that hangs from the ceiling of the church. The Gottesgau is surrounded by 16-meter-high arches that support the gigantic glass structure.

Temple of the Legião da Boa Vontade, Brasilia

The temple of the Benevolent Legion is open 24 hours a day. It is a pyramid-shaped construction that is decorated with granite spirals. The church also includes an Egyptian room, an art gallery and a small shop.

Mosteiro de São Bento, São Paolo

Every Sunday around 11 a.m. you can hear Gregorian chants in the Mosteiro de São Bento. The house also has its own bakery. This institution, established in 1597, was created to provide the monks with bread, etc. This bakery has been open to the public since 1999.

Important universities

Brazil offers a large number of universities in various locations. The most important universities are:

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

The Federal University of Minas Gerais was founded in 1927 in Belo Horizonte. There are currently around 39,000 students studying at this very prestigious university.

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul

The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul was founded in 1937 in Porto Alegre. The university currently has around 30,000 students.

Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre

The Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre was founded in 1961 in Porto Alegre. The university has the following faculties:

  • Biomedicine
  • nutrition
  • Nursing
  • medicine
  • Phoniatrics
  • physical therapy
  • psychology

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was founded in Porto Alegre in 1895 and is now one of the largest universities in Brazil with 27 faculties. The university currently has around 24,000 enrolled students.

Universidade de São Paulo

The University of São Paulo, founded in 1827, is the largest university in Brazil with around 80,000 students and one of the largest in Latin America.

Itaipu dam

Itaipu Dam or Reservoir

This reservoir is the largest in the world with the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. It was inaugurated in 1982 after 7 years of construction. It lies in the border area with Paraguay. When filled, its water surface covers an area of 1,340 km² - with a volume of 29 billion m³ = 29 km³. After a series of extensions, the electrical output of the turbines driven by the water in the reservoir now amounts to 14,000 MW - for comparison, a German nuclear power plant has around 1,000 MW. The wall of the dam is 7,760 m long and has a maximum height of 196 m. The main inflow and outflow of the reservoir is the Paraná.

The building even found special appreciation in the composition "Itaipu" by the important American composer and musician. He wrote it after visiting the facility in 1989.

Botanical and Zoological Gardens

Botanical Garden, Brasilia

In March 1985 the Botanical Garden of Brasilia was established. The park is an example of the "cerrado", the dry vegetation that is typical of central Brazil, and serves not only for recreational purposes but also for research and education. The park has many hiking trails, picnic areas, gardens full of native and exotic plants, a viewing area from which you can admire almost the entire park area, as well as a visitor center that offers help and information.

Jardím Botânico, Rio

Rua Jardim Botânico, 920, Jardim Botânico

The botanical garden was closed in 1808. Lush tropical vegetation extends over 141 hectares. The royal palms and the giant Amazon water lily "Victoria Regia" are outstanding.

Zoological Garden, São Paulo

The city's zoo offers an excellent opportunity to get to know the species-rich fauna of the giant metropolis and its surroundings. It is also one of the most popular leisure options for Paulistani families with children. The best way to get to the zoo is by shuttle bus. This departs directly from the Jabaquara metro station.

Natural beauties

Amazon Basin

The Amazon region is home to around 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plant species and around 2000 different bird and mammal species. One fifth of all birds on earth live in the Amazon region. The flora of the Amazon is the most pronounced in the world, which is why the Amazon basin is also nicknamed "the green lung of the earth". Around 438,000 different plant species have been discovered to date. The Amazon basin extends over 6 million km² of river and jungle area and extends over 8 countries. Just over half of the Amazon is on Brazilian soil. You can travel to the Amazon region mainly by boat or by plane.

Floresta da Tijuca, Rio

Entrance: Praça Afonso Viseu, Alto da Boa Vista, Tijuca

At 120 square kilometers, the city park is the green lung of the city. The park, which was laid out in the 19th century, is overgrown by tropical forest and offers numerous viewpoints that allow impressive views over the city and the sea. It rises with the "Pico da Tijuca" at an altitude of 1,022 meters.

Archipelago of the Costa Verde

About 100 kilometers south of Rio de Janeiro there is a special stretch of coast. On the mainland there are small, quiet fishing villages that represent a strong contrast to the metropolitan life of Rio. In front of the coast there are numerous inhabited and uninhabited islands with lush vegetation and white beaches. Various companies offer excursions to the islands. The most outstanding is the "Ilha Grande". Three small towns are located on the approximately 200 km² island, which is otherwise covered with tropical forest. There are 102 beaches along the banks, including Praia Lopes Mendes, one of the most beautiful beaches in Brazil.

Caju Island

In the states of Maranhão and Piauí in northeastern Brazil is the third largest meeting of salt and fresh water areas in the world, the Parnaiba Delta. It lies on the open sea and is the only one of its kind in the entire American continent. Warm freshwater channels meander through dune landscapes and create 83 small islands full of forests, beaches, lagoons and dunes. The region can be explored on foot, on horseback or on various boats (e.g. canoes, kayaks and the local Gaiolas). Caju Island has been owned by the Clark family since the 19th century and is a protected area. There is a small guesthouse on the island itself and the possibility of camping there. Another very attractive option for visiting Caju is to settle in one of the surrounding locations, in which there is already a very distinctive but still pleasant infrastructure for ecotourism. From the capital of the state of Piauí, Teresina, Caju is approximately 220 miles and a four-hour boat ride away.

Chapada Diamantina

The area around the 1,520 km² Chapada Diamantina National Park and the nearby entrance town Lençóis impresses with its natural beauty and nostalgic charm. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Germans Spix and Martius discovered a huge diamond vein in this area. More luck seekers flooded the region in search of diamonds. Thus Lençóis became the third largest city in the state of Bahia. Although there are only about 4,000 residents there today, the rich culture of the diamond rush lives on in local folk art. The "Chapada Diamantina" is a popular destination for ecotourism and is characterized by numerous natural monuments. The Lapão Cave, for example, is the largest quartz cave on the entire American continent. There are also beautiful cave lakes such as the Poço Encantado and Poço Azul. The Fumaça waterfall is one of the highest in allBrazil. Since the volume of the water is too small for its height, it dissolves into a cloud of mist before it hits the ground, which allows a magically mysterious sight. From Salvador, the area can be easily reached in a few hours by bus or by plane (to Lençóis).

Chapada dos Guimarães

The Chapada dos Guimarães is just a short bus journey from the capital of the state of Mato Grosso. Your visit is a worthwhile detour from the Pantanal. The small town delights its visitors with unique accommodations, restaurants and handicrafts. The natural beauty of the area is breathtaking: red cliffs and canyons are reminiscent of the desert landscapes of the northwestern United States. You can find waterfalls like the "Véu da Noiva". Countless exotic animals accompany visitors on their way through nature. Ancient cave paintings have been found in the protected interior of the red rocks. There are also numerous cave lakes to visit, especially the "Caverna Aroe Jari". To visit the neighboring Indian tribes in the Xingu National Park,

Bay Park, Brasilia

This water park has six water slides, the two highest being 20 meters and even 35 meters high. You can also use whirlpools, an artificial lake and pools for children in the park.

Guanabara Bay

The Guanabara Bay (Baía de Guanabara) is an approximately 380 km² sea bay in Brazil, on the western side of which is Rio de Janeiro and on the eastern side of Niterói. At the western beginning of the bay is the famous Sugar Loaf.

The sailing competitions of the XXXI. Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro from August 5th to 21st, 2016

Unfortunately, the water in the beautiful bay is extremely polluted.

Foz do Iguaçu (Iguaçu Falls)

The Iguaçu River has its source in the coastal mountains of Paraná and Santa Catarina and meanders 600 km to the west. It spreads on the border with Argentina and Paraguay and flows into the Iguaçu waterfalls.. The waterfalls are over 3 km wide and 80 m high. The best time to visit is between August and November, when the river is at its lowest risk of flooding

Brasilia National Park (Agua Mineral), Brasilia

The park, which extends over a gigantic area of over 30,000 hectares, is known by locals as "Agua Mineral" (= mineral water). This is due to the many springs and water reservoirs that come from the Acampamento Current In addition to these natural water resources, there are two hiking trails in the national park: the Capivara trail is 1.3 kilometers and the Cristal Agua trail is 5 kilometers long. On quieter days, armadillos, monkeys and “capybaras” (= large rodents) see. Parque da Cidade, Brasilia In the middle of the Plano Piloto, the city park spreads out over a huge area. It is equipped with sports fields, a horse track, skate tracks, children's playgrounds, bike and hiking trails.

Parque Ibirapuera, São Paolo

Parque Ibirapuera is the most interesting park in the city. In addition to beautifully landscaped gardens and lakes, it also offers several museums on an area of 1.6 million square meters. The park, which was laid out in 1954 by landscape architect Robert Burle Max, is home to the most important native plants in Brazil. When designing the plantations, attention was explicitly paid to using indigenous plants instead of imported species. The park is often called São Paulos "Central Park" and is one of the main excursion destinations for the Paulistanos (= residents of São Paulo) on Sundays. Located in Parque Ibirapuera is the Museu de Arte Contemporanea, which contains a collection of Western and South American modern art, including exhibits by Picasso and Mondigliani. The park also houses the building of the Biennale, founded in 1951, the second oldest biennale in the world based on the Venice model. The pavilion for the biennial world exhibition of contemporary art was designed by the architects Oscar Niemeyer and Hélio Uchôa and houses both national and international art and installations. Since 1973 there has also been an international biennial for architecture and design there.

Pantanal

The Pantanal, which lies in the far west of Brazil and borders Bolivia and Paraguay, is the largest freshwater swamp landscape on earth. It contains a unique flora and fauna. The Cuiabá and Paraguay rivers cross the area, which is sparsely populated. Entry usually takes place by plane to Cuaibá, Campo Grande or Corumbá. You can also take a boat down the Rio Paraguai from the Bolivian border. The Pantanal Matogrossense National Park (1,350 km²), which has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site, is definitely worth seeing.

Pao de Açúcar

The "Pao de Açúcar" ("Sugar Loaf") is regarded as the symbol of Rio de Janeiro. It is one of the mountain peaks that characterize the cityscape of Rio. From a peninsula of "Guanabara Bay" the "Sugar Loaf" rises 396 m. A cable car, built in 1912, transports up to 75 passengers every half hour along a 1.4 km route. A visit to this sight at sunrise or sunset is particularly recommended.

Brazil: animals

Mammals

Lowland tapir

The largest native mammal is the lowland tapir. It is also one of the oldest mammals, as its ancestors lived 40-50 million years ago. The solitary vegetarian lives mainly in the dense rainforest, always looking for the vicinity of water.

The red-brown fur is only provided with white stripes in the young animals.

Brazil is home to numerous superlatives. In addition to the lowland tapir, the water opposum also lives here, which is the only marsupial that lives completely in water today. The 1.20 m tall capybaras belong to the rodents regardless of their name and are the largest rodents within this order.

With a lot of luck you can spot the sloth in the trees of the rainforests, and the giant anteater and various big cats such as the puma or the mostly nocturnal jaguar - the largest cat species on the American continent - tend to stay hidden.

Agoutis

The agoutis (Dasyprocta) are a genus of rodents from the family of the agoutis and acouchis (Dasyproctidae). They have slender bodies and a thick and coarse coat that is usually dark orange or brownish in color.

They live in forests, dense bushland and savannahs, but also in fields and plantations. They are usually diurnal.

Their underside is white or yellowish. The animals reach a head-trunk length of 40 to 65 cm - with a weight between 1.5 to 4 kg.

As pure herbivores, agoutis feed on fruits, nuts and leaves. Stems or roots. In the Amazon region, they are almost the only animals that can open hard Brazil nuts with their teeth.

There are eleven types of agoutis, of which the following occur in Brazil:

- Azara agouti (Dasyprocta azarae), which occurs in southern Brazil and northern Argentina.

- Black agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa), which occurs in northern South America from Colombia to the Amazon region

- Black-bellied aguti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha), which is only found in eastern Brazil.

Bats

Some species of bats are found in Belize. A number of diseases can be transmitted through a bite, including the deadly rabies.

As an example, the Gelbohrer bat should be shown in more detail:

- Gelbohrer bat

The Gelbohrer bat (Uroderma bilobatum) is a species of bat from the family of leaf noses (Phyllostomidae).

This bat reaches a head-trunk length of 55 to 75 mm - with a weight of 15 to about 20 g. It is gray-brown in color, while the face is streaked with four white stripes.

There is a light central stripe on the back and the ears have yellow borders.

The Gelbohrer bat lives in lowland rainforests, but is occasionally found in gardens.

Their diet consists of fruits and nectar as well as insects.

Their resting places consist of tent-like hiding places that they build from palm or banana leaves

This bat species is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.

Maned Wolf

The maned wolf, which is mostly found in grasslands, is also rarely seen, as it has become very rare. It is clearly recognizable by the black spot on the red-brown fur on the neck and on the legs, which are black up to the knees. Now you will hear more of the monkeys than you actually see them. The most common species include howler monkeys with the characteristic prehensile tail, capuchin monkeys as well as spider, night and woolly monkeys.

The pampas fox and pampas cats have their distribution area, as the name suggests, in the pampas.

Due to the tropical climate, many animals have chosen the night as the optimal time of day for hunting and other activities.

Ocelot

This is how the ocelot is a nocturnal predator from the real cat family and grows up to 160 cm. Although it is also excellent at climbing, the ocelot mostly moves on the ground. Its diet consists of small deer, monkeys, snakes, small rodents and reptiles. It lives mainly in the humid jungle, in the mountain forest, in the mangrove forests and in thorn bush savannas.

Because of its yellowish-brown fur with black spots, the ocelot is still hunted today and is therefore on the red list of endangered species. Other nocturnal mammals are armadillos, the wound bears around 1 m tall, agoutis and their relatives, the pakas.

The marsh deer is typical of the flood savannahs, where huge areas are flooded during the rainy season. It can be found on the banks of rivers and on swamps. It is now also classified as endangered.

Spider monkeys

The spider monkeys (Brachyteles) are a genus from the family of the spider monkeys (Atelidae). With a head-trunk length between 45 to about 80 cm and a 65 to 80 cm long tail, they are the largest primates on the American continent. Their fur is rather short and yellow-gray in color, but can also turn reddish depending on the region. They only occur in parts of Brazil and are considered to be very endangered.

The animals live in trees and feed mainly on leaves, fruits and other parts of plants. The animals live together in small groups.

There are two species of the spider monkey genus:

- Northern spider monkeys (Brachyteles hypoxanthus)

- Southern spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides).

Reptiles with snakes

Black caimans

Caution is advised in the Amazon, not least because of the native black caimans. With a length of more than 6 m, they are the largest South American predators.

While the juveniles still feed on invertebrates and piebalds, the menu of the adult black caimans includes fish, mammals, reptiles and even other caiman species.

Spectacled caimans

The are also included under the alligators spectacled caimans can reach a length of 5 m and hold mainly in rivers with muddy bottoms on.

Ameive

One of the residents of the grasslands of Central and South America is the Ameive belonging to the rail lizards. The rail lizards, together with the iguanas, are the two most important groups of lizards.

Turtles

The formerly widespread turtles have become very rare, not least because its buried in the sand like eggs are dug up by people back for the purposes of consumption.

Warning

Even if the following snakes are non-toxic, they should not be classified as harmless at all.

Idol snake

The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.

The prey is embraced and strangled by contracting the muscles.

The snake can be found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Amapá, Pará, Rondonia, Bahia, Sergipe, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Federal District, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Goiás, S Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte)

in Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia (Valle del Cauca).

Also in Mexico (Yucatan, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Quéretaro, Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco, Morelos and Hidalgo), in Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay.

The snake is also at home in Peru (Pasco), Suriname and Venezuela (Merida, Isla Margarita), as well as in Florida/USA - where it was released.

They can also be found in Trinidad, Tobago, Martinique, Aruba and Antigua.

The snake has the following subspecies:

- Boa constrictor amarali

- Boa constrictor constrictor

- Boa constrictor nebulosa

- Boa constrictor occidentalis

- Boa constrictor orophias

- Boa constrictor ortonii You can find

a detailed description of the snake at Goruma here >>>

Yellow anaconda

The yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) is up to approx. 4 m in length - and weighs approx. 40 kg - somewhat smaller than the large anaconda.

The yellow anaconda can be found in the northeast of Argentina (Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fé, Corrientes), in the southeast of Bolivia, in the southwest of Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná São Paulo) as well as in Paraguay and Uruguay.

You can find a detailed description of the yellow anaconda at Goruma here >>>

Large anaconda

The large anaconda (Eunectes) can in rare cases be over 9 m long and is therefore the largest snake in the world alongside the reticulated python. Your prey is entwined and strangled or crushed by the contraction of the muscles.

It can also be life-threatening for humans. In addition to Brazil, the great anakondo can also be found in northern Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Colombia, eastern Paraguay, northeast Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela.

A detailed description of the local Great Anaconda can be found at Goruma here >>>

There are four types of the genus Anaconda:

- Eunectes beniensis (Beni anaconda)

- Eunectes deschauenseei (De-Schauensee-Anaconda)

- Eunectes murinus (Large anaconda)

- Eunectes notaeus (Yellow anaconda)

Black-spotted anaconda

The black-spotted anaconda (Eunectes deschauenseei) can be found in the northeast of Brazil and in French Guyana

General

Many of the snakes found in Brazil are poisonous and some of them are very dangerous. These include the black-white (yellow) -red ringed coral snakes, pit vipers, the lance vipers and the bushmaster.

In total there are about 360 species of snakes with various subspecies from 80 genera and 9 families living in Brazil.

General information on coral snakes

These snakes of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter), which are usually very pretty, with their black and white or yellow and red rings, come in 79 species with various subspecies.

They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America - with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions. They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the trunk and their tail is short. They have The nocturnal snakes live mostly hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles - more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.

Bites are extremely rare in humans. They have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between nerves and between nerves and muscles (synapses). They also have numerous types of toxins that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins).

Without an antiserum, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected. There are the following coral snakes here:

- Amazon coral snake (Micrurus spixii), also known as giant coral snake, is the largest species of the Micrurus genus with a length of over 1.50 m

- Bolivian coral snake (Micrurus obscurus)

- Brazilian coral snake (Micrurus brasiliensis)

- Brazilian coral snake (Micrurus dekoratus)

- Caatinga coral snake (Micrurus ibiboboca)

- Hempricht's coral snake (Micrurus hembrichi)

- Pacaraima coral snake - Painted Coral snake (Micrurus corallinus)

- Para coral snake (Micrurus paraensis) (Micrurus potyguara

- Black-headed coral snake (Micrurus averyi), also referred to as Avery's coral snake

- South American coral snake (Micrurus lemniscatus)

- Southern coral snake (Micrurus frontalis)

- Southern coral snake (Micrurus pyrrhocryptus)

- Silvas coral snake (Micrurus silviae)

- White-banded coral snake (Micrurus albicinctus)

- Western coral snake (Micrurus albicinctus) - Western coral snake

General information about lance vipers

The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of vipers (Viperidae).

The genus of the lance viper comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies.

The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.

Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.

It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation.

The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip.

Brazilian lance viper

The Brazilian lance viper (Bothrops brazil) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.

By the serpent no subspecies exist Brazilian Lanzenotter One finds this Brazilian Lanzenotter (Bothrops moujeni) in Argentina (Misiones), Brazil (Piaui, Parana, Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goias, Maranhao and Bahia) in Bolivia and Paraguay. It has the same German name as the species (Bothrops brazil)

Caatinga lance viper

The caatinga lance viper (Bothrops erythromelas) occurs only in Brazil and here in Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao,

Minas Gerais, Paraiba,

Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte as well as in Sergipe

There are no subspecies of the snake

Chaco lance viper

the Chaco-lance viper (Bothrops diporus) comes in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay in front

of the snake are no subspecies

cotiara Lanzenotter

the cotiara Lanzenotter (Bothrops cotiar) comes in Argentina (Misiones) and Brazil (Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul).

There are no subspecies of the snake

Fonseca`s lance viper

The Fonseca`s lance viper (Bothrops fonsecai) can only be found in Brazil, namely in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

French island lance viper (Bothrops sazimai)

The French island lance viper (Bothrops sazimai) occurs only in Brazil on the Ilha dos Franceses (French island) in the state of Espírito Santo.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Speckled wood lance viper

The speckled wood lance viper (Bothrops taeniatus) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Rondonia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Roraima, Maranhão, Pará and Acre), Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela before.

There are two subspecies of the snake, Bothrops taeniata taeniata and Bothrops taeniata lichenosa

Common lance viper

The common lance viper (Bothrops atrox) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela and on Trinidad.

Also on Trinidad, an island that belongs to the Lesser Antilles.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Green Jararaca Lance Viper

The Green Jararaca Lance Viper (Bothrops bilineatus) occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Suriname and Venezuela.

There are two subspecies of the snake, Bothrops bilineata bilineata

and Bothrops bilineata smaragdina

Crescent lance viper

The crescent lance viper (Bothrops alternatus) occurs in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Island lance viper

The island lance viper (Bothrops insularis) occurs only in Brazil and there on the small island Queimada Grande Island.

The snake practically only feeds on migrating birds and is extremely poisonous.

Therefore, entering the island is strictly forbidden.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Jararaca Lance Viper

The Jararaca Lance Viper (Bothrops jararaca) occurs in Argentina (Misiones)

Brazil (South Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo,

Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso) as well as in the northeast -Paraguay vor

There are no subspecies of the snake

Jararacussu lance viper

The Jararacussu lance viper (Bothrops jararacussu) occurs in Argentina (Misiones), southern Bolivia,

Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia) and Paraguay.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Matogrossa Lance Viper

The Matogrossa Lance Viper (Bothrops matogrossensis) occurs in Argentina (Salta), Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas, Rondonia, Goias, Tocantins, São Paulo), Paraguay and Peru.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Murici Lance

Viper The Murici Lance Viper (Bothrops muriciensis) occurs in northeastern Brazil in Alagoas.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Marble lance viper

The marble lance viper (Bothrops marmoratus) occurs only in Goiás in Brazil.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Marajó lance

viper The Marajó lance viper (Bothrops marajoensis) occurs only in Para in Brazil.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Neuwied`s lance viper

The Neuwied`s lance viper (Bothrops neuwiedi) occurs in small, limited regions of Brazil and Argentina.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Pampas lance viper

The pampas lance viper (Bothrops pubescens) occurs in Brazil (Rio Grand do Sul) and in Uruguay (Artigas, Rivera, Tacuarembó, Cerro Largo, Treinta y Tres, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Canelones, Rocha and San José).

There are no subspecies of the snake

Parana lance

viper The Parana lance viper (Bothrops itapetiningae) occurs only in Brazil and here in Minas Gerais, S Goias, Mato Grosso, Sao Paulo, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, as well as Santa Catarina.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Piraja's Lance Viper

The Piraja's Lance Viper (Bothrops pirajai) occurs only in Bahia in Brazil.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Sao Paulo lance

viper The Sao Paulo lance viper (Bothrops alcatrez) occurs in northeastern Brazil and in the state of Sao Paulo.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Sao Paulo lance

viper The Sao Paulo lance viper (Bothrops otavioi) occurs in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Black-

faced lance viper The black-faced lance viper (Bothrops pauloensis) occurs in Brazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná) as well as in Bolivia and Paraguay.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Sertao Lance

Viper The Sertao Lance Viper (Bothrops lutzi) occurs only in Brazil, namely in Minas Gerais, Bahia, Goiás and Tocantins, Piauí, Pernambuco, Ceará, Bahia and São Paulo)

There are no subspecies of the snake.

White-tailed lance viper

The white-tailed lance viper (Bothrops leucurus) occurs only in Brazil in Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, and Ceará.

There are no subspecies of the snake

South American Bushmaster

The South American Bushmaster (Lachesis muta) is not a lance viper and has two subspecies:

- Lachesis muta muta (occurrence: in the Amazon basin)

- Lachesis muta rhombeata (distribution in southeastern Brazil).

In addition to the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta), there are three other species of the genus Lachelis, which do not occur in Brazil.

• Lachesis acrochorda

• Lachesis melanocephala

• Lachesis stenophrys

Tropical rattlesnake There are seven subspecies of

the tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

With all its subspecies, the snake can be found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Paraguay, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela and on the island of Aruba.

The snake is considered to be the most poisonous rattlesnake.

More poisonous animals

Banana spiders

The genus of the banana spiders (Phoneutria) comprises eight different species, all of which are very aggressive and extremely poisonous. They are also known as the Brazilian wandering spiders.

The most dangerous species is Phoneutria nigriventer. This occurs only in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

The females are between 30 and 50 mm in size, while the males are smaller, at most 40 mm. The basic color is dark brown with light stripes.

Their venom can kill a healthy adult human in a matter of hours. However, the spider does not inject venom with every bite. There is also a counter serum.

Most spider bite accidents occur in the home during the day.

The spider species live in South America, from Ecuador to northern Argentina. However, as the name suggests, the main distribution area of the spiders is Brazil.

Every now and then individual spiders in banana boxes made their way to Europe, where they caused great excitement.

Real spiders

Real spiders are a family of real spiders (Sicariidae) and comprise the two genera Loxosceles and Sicarius with around 140 species. <br />

The species of the genus Sicarius can be found in South America, but also in South and West Africa and on the Galapagos Islands, while the species of the genus Loxosceles are found throughout America and Africa.

The species of the genus Sicarius dig themselves into the ground to catch prey and are between 8 and 20 mm in size and have a yellowish or brownish color.

A bite is almost painless at first and is usually not even noticed. But after 2 to 8 hours the area around the bite becomes more and more painful and within the next 12 to 36 hours the pain becomes very intense.

Bite wounds can also develop in the next few days.

In addition, headaches, nausea, vomiting, cramps and muscle pain can be the result of a bite and even deaths can occur.

The poisonous effect of the spiders from the genus Loxoceles is somewhat stronger than that from the genus Sicarius.

- Chilean recluse

spider The Chilean recluse spider (Loxosceles laeta) is the most dangerous species of spider of the genus Loxoceles. It is native to South America, and there mainly in Chile.

In Spanish it is called Araña de Rincón, which refers to its occurrence in dark corners, e.g. B. in cupboards. The females grow to 7 to 15 mm, while the males grow to 6 to 12 mm.

The spiders are reddish brown, orange or yellowish in color and have six eyes and eight legs. They are poisonous and a bite can be life threatening. But severe tissue necrosis is very common.

Tiger spiders (Scytodes globula), which are particularly common in rural households, are a natural enemy.

Giant tarantula

The giant tarantula () is widespread along the entire northeastern coast of South America. With a body length of around 10 cm and a leg span of around 28 cm, it is considered the largest tarantula in the world. It lives on rivers and near the sea, where it lives in deep caves. The food of the brown to deep black spider includes large insects, rodents, birds and smaller lizards, which it hunts at night. In the event of an attack, hair of the abdomen is stripped off with the hind legs and the victim is "shot".

In humans, the poison contained in the hair of the spider causes irritation of the mucous membranes in the mouth and throat.

Wolf spiders

The family of the wolf spiders (Lycosa) comprises around 124 different genera with around 2,400 species. They are poisonous, but not life-threatening for humans.

In Brazil, Argentina and Praguay the species Lycosa pampeana should be mentioned . A sting leads to slight pain, swelling and reddening of the skin, which regress after about two days

- Brazilian tarantula

The tarantulas belong to the family of wolf spiders (Lycosa).

Scorpions

Not all scorpion species are dangerous, but Brazil seems to be home to the most poisonous species.

Tityus species are particularly widespread, some of which are particularly dangerous for children and which have died after being bitten.

harpy

The natural distribution of the harpy eagle is South and Central America. With a wingspan of 190 - 240 cm and a length of 80 - 100 cm, it is considered the most powerful bird of prey in the world and is now threatened with extinction. Their distinguishing feature is a broad head of feathers on the back of the head, which lies smoothly in normal condition, but struggles when excited. She hunts along the woods and along river banks. Their diet consists of large vertebrates such as monkeys, sloths, possums, coatis, snakes, and iguanas.

The bird of prey got its name from a mythical creature in Greek mythology. First storm demons and later ugly giant birds with female heads were called harpies.

Hummingbird

The hummingbird, which is one of the smallest warm-blooded animals, is much smaller. Not only can it stand in the air, but it is the only bird that can fly backwards. Its low weight and the very fast flapping of the wings (approx. 80 beats/sec.) Contribute to these flying skills. Hummingbirds mainly feed on nectar to provide the energy they need for strenuous flying. Their very long beak is striking, which is a perfect adaptation to their diet, since the nectar required is usually deep in the calyx of the flower.

Toucans, parrots and seven-color tangars

The toucans, parrots and the small seven-color tangars with their green heads, which are easy to recognize by their large and colorful beak, are responsible for the splendor of colors in the forests.

Hyacinth Macaw

The Hyacinth Macaw with its uniformly blue plumage is the largest parrot in the world with a length of 1 m, and at the same time one of the rarest. While it used to be widespread over large parts of Brazil, its occurrence is now limited to the Pantanal. He is thus in good company with soldier birds, roseate spoonbills and the ibis, which also only occur in these flooded areas.

Vultures

A very important function as a kind of "garbage police" are exercised by the vultures, who maintain order in the vicinity of roads, markets and settlements by eliminating animal carcasses.

Insects

The microcosm of Brazil can hardly be surpassed in terms of diversity and uniqueness. Most of the butterfly species are represented here, and numerous species of beetles, termites, leaf cutter ants and the nomadic driver ants are also part of the inventory, so to speak.

The morpho butterfly from the butterfly family is another superlative of the country. With a wingspan of 8-20 cm, it is one of the largest butterflies in the world. Its bright blue and metallic glittering wings are striking. It usually stays at the height of the treetops on rivers, but also in mountains. They feed by sucking the juice of rotting fruit.

But numerous species of mosquitos, bees and wasps also live here

Underwater world

In the Amazon alone there are around 1,500 species of fish, including the notorious piranhas and the pirarucu (German: Arapaima), which is the largest known freshwater fish with a length of over 3 m.

The most common are the tetras belonging to the carp fish, which also include the electric eel.

The manatees, also known as manatees, which also live in the Amazon basin and graze the underwater pastures, are endangered.

They are slow, dark brown mammals with a characteristic spatulate caudal fin.

The manatees have a small head with a very bulging upper lip and are short haired. They are diurnal, sociable, and often live in herds.

Whales and dolphins as well as sharks cavort in the country's waters.

Brazil: plants

Trees

Brazil's dense rainforest covers the areas on the Amazon. Here, 30 to 60 m high trees stand close together, including strangler figs, Brazil nut trees and the rosewood tree (Jacaranda mimosifolia).

Lianas are particularly widespread in the rainforests.

The strangler fig is a hemiepiphyte, which means that the rhizome (rootstock) of this plant rises up on tree trunks, but is rooted in the ground. By being anchored in the ground, the plant is supplied with nutrients and the aerial roots become thicker and lignified. When the roots touch, they fuse, creating a dense network around the host tree.

In this way, its main vessels are pinched off and it dies. Therefore the trunk of the strangler fig is hollow inside.

The Várzeas, so-called permanently flooded areas, make up a large part of the flora of the Amazon.

A characteristic tree of this region is the rubber tree, but the Jupati palm also shapes the picture here.

A small part of the formerly huge araucaria forests has been preserved in the highlands in southern Brazil.

Also worth mentioning are the American trumpet tree or the Peruvian pepper tree.

Crops

The most important crops and sources of income include the sugar cane plantations in the northeast and the coffee plantations in the southeast of Brazil.

Potatoes, pineapples, cocoa and manioc are also common crops. The latter is also known under the name cassava or bread root. The plant belongs to the milkweed family, grows up to 3 m high, has a bushy habit and greenish-yellow flowers. The starchy, up to 8 cm thick and up to 90 cm long tubers are used. All parts of the plant contain a toxin that is destroyed by washing out and exposure to heat. This makes the cassava palatable.

The rubber tree, of which there are around 1,000 species, belongs to the mulberry family. Its home is Asia, but today it is common everywhere. In Central Europe it is often used as a houseplant. The tree has large, dark green and thick leaves and can grow up to 30 m tall in nature. It has a dense, spreading crown and strong roots that run on the surface of the earth, as well as numerous aerial roots. Ficus rubber is obtained from the white milky sap of its trunk.

The leaves of stevia are used as a natural sweetener. The 1 m tall plant belongs to the daisy family and grows in the highlands between Brazil and Paraguay. In contrast to sugar made from sugar cane, the sweetness of stevia leaves does not cause tooth decay and is recommended for diabetes and high blood pressure. While the plant has found its way to Israel, among other places, it is still banned in Europe.

Juices, ice creams and jams are made from the pulp of Capuaçu, which is related to the cocoa tree.

The seeds are used for the production of chocolate.

Medicinal plants

The diversity of the flora of the rainforests is almost inexhaustible and there are an endless number of plants with healing properties. Some of them are presented here.

Graviola tree

The 5 to 6 m tall graviola tree grows in the Amazon. All plant parts of the tree can be used in medicine. The seeds and the fruit juice reduce fever, but are also used for parasite infestation, diarrhea and to increase breast milk production. The unripe fruit can also be used externally for rheumatism and arthritis.

Jenipapo tree

The fig-like fruits of the Jenipapo tree are only edible when ripe. The ripeness of the fruit can be recognized by the dark yellow color of the fruit. They stimulate the appetite and are also given to skin rashes or worms.

The natives use the pulp for body painting.

Poisonous plants

The ever-popular cashew nuts are the fruits of the kidney tree, which can reach a size of up to 12 m. However, their shell is poisonous due to the skin-irritating fumes that it emits and therefore the nuts can only be eaten when peeled or roasted.

More plants

The famous Pantanal is the largest flood savannah in the world and basically almost a biotope of its own.

Numerous floating plants and tufted grasses characterize the picture here.

Water lilies with their 30 to 40 cm large flowers are particularly numerous in the Amazon.

Colorful orchids and bromeliads have made their home on branches and enrich the diversity of the rainforests. The middle west of the country, on the other hand, is more dominated by savannahs with numerous cacti.

The bougainvilea, which is now native to Europe, is also gorgeous to look at, and not to forget the beaked heliconia.

 

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