Italy: political system
Italy is a parliamentary democracy headed by the President as head of
state. The country's parliament consists of two chambers, the Chamber of
Deputies and the Senate, which are elected every five years and have equal
rights. The head of government is the prime minister, who is elected by
The country belongs to numerous international organizations and alliances, such
as NATO since April 4, 1949 and the United Nations (UN) since December 14,
1955. Italy is also, together with Great Britain, France, Germany and the
Benelux countries, a founding member of today's European Union, at that time the
EEC, Euratom and the Coal and Steel Community. Although the country had 65
governments from its founding in 1946 to the end of 2018, the country is
considered a stable democracy.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
Italy is divided into 20 regions, which, however, have less political powers
than, for example, the German and Austrian federal states or the Swiss cantons.
||Area in km²
||around 1.3 million
|Aosta Valley *
||around 4 million
||around 4 million
|Friuli Venezia Giulia *
||around 1.2 million
||around 2.1 million
||around 6 million
||1 million (urban area)
||around 5.1 million
||2.8 million (urban area)
||around 1.8 million
||590,000 (urban area)
||around 9 million
||1.2 million (urban area)
||around 1.4 million
||around 4.3 million
||870,000 (urban area)
||around 1.7 million
||around 5.1 million
||around 3.6 million
||around 4.5 million
|Trentino-South Tyrol *
* These regions have a special autonomy status.
With the exception of the Aosta Valley, the regions are again subdivided into
provinces, of which there are 109 in total. The "next lower" administrative
units are the municipalities and cities.
The national anthem of Italy was written by Goffredo Mameli in 1847 and set
to music by Michele Novaro that same year. In honor of its creator, it is
therefore also called the "Mameli Hymn". It became the country's anthem in 1946,
although this was never written into the constitution. But in 2012 a law was
passed stating that the hymn must be learned in schools across the
country. During the curfew due to the corona virus in March 2020, the Italians
played and sang the national anthem together from their balconies and windows
||In the English translation
l'Italia s'è desta,
dell'elmo di Scipio
s'è cinta la testa.
Dov'è la vittoria?
Le porga la chioma,
che schiava di Roma
Iddio la creò.Refrain:
Stringiamoci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
Stringiamoci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
l'Italia chiamò!Noi fummo da secoli
perché non siam popoli,
perché siam divisi.
bandiera, una speme:
di fonderci insieme
già l'ora suonò.refrain
l'unione e l'amore
rivelano ai popoli
le vie del Signore.
Giuriamo far libero
il suolo natio:
uniti, per Dio,
chi vincer ci può?
Dall'Alpi a Sicilia
Dovunque è Legnano,
Ogn'uom di Ferruccio
Ha il core, ha la mano,
I bimbi d'Italia
Si chiaman Balilla,
Il suon d'ogni squilla
I Vespri suonò.
Son giunchi che piegano
Le spade vendute:
Già l'Aquila d'Austria
Le penne ha perdute.
Il sangue d'Italia,
Il sangue Polacco,
Bevé, col cosacco,
Ma il cor le bruciò.
|Brothers of Italy,
adorned herself with the helmet of Scipio Das head.
Where is the goddess of victory?
May she bow her head to Italy,
For as a slave of Rome
God created her.Refrain:
Let's close the ranks,
We are ready to die,
We are ready to die,
Italy has called!
Let's close the ranks,
We are ready to die,
We are ready to die,
Italy has called!We have been
kicked and laughed at for centuries
because we are not a people,
because we are divided.
Let us collect a single
flag, a hope:
that we can unite,
the hour has already struck.refrain
unite, let us unite Unity and love
reveal to the peoples
the ways of the Lord
Let us swear
to liberate our homeland:
United by God,
who can defeat us?
From the Alps to Sicily
, Legnano is everywhere,
every man has
his heart and hand from Ferruccio.
The children of Italy
are called Balilla.
The sound of every bell rang out
Like rushes are those who
swing bought swords.
The Austrian eagle
has already lost its feathers.
He drank the blood of Italy,
the blood of Poland
with the Cossack.
But his heart is burned.
The national flag (national flag) of Italy was introduced on June 19, 1946
and modified somewhat on July 28, 2006. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, there are different interpretations for
the three colors. The meanwhile recognized sees green as a symbol for nature and
the landscape, white the color of the glaciers of the Alps and red the blood
that was shed in the Italian struggles for freedom and unification.
In the national parks
A lot of large mammals in Italy can be observed particularly well in the
national parks, for example foxes, chamois or red deer, ibex and wild boar -
but not only there, of course
Ibex are a genus of goats (Capra) and are divided into seven species,
including the Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) in Italy. The population in the Italian
Alps is estimated at around 13,000 animals. The alpine ibex has a head-trunk
length of about 130 to 150 cm, with a shoulder height of 70 to about 90 cm. The
females (goats) are significantly smaller than the males (buck). The bucks have
up to 100 cm long and curved horns, while the goats have only about 20 cm short
and barely curved horns. It is interesting that the goats have a goatee. In
summer the bucks are dark brown in color and the goats are more reddish or
golden brown. In winter, the fur of both sexes is rather gray and very dense. In
summer you can find the pure herbivores up to heights of approx. 3. 500 m. They
are excellent climbers. The Swiss canton of Graubünden has the animal in its
coat of arms.
As in Germany, for example, the wild boars now come to the cities. They are
also becoming an increasing nuisance for farmers - including wine and olive
growers. Their occurrence is now estimated at over a million animals. Therefore,
they are hunted intensively, which of course comes in very handy for the hunting
In Italy you can find the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), which is
closely related to the Pyrenees chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). The alpine
chamois reach a head-trunk length of 90 to 130 cm, with a shoulder height of
about 70 to 85 cm. Their weight varies between 25 and 40 kg. Their fur is short
in summer with a reddish tinge, while their winter fur is long, dense and dark
brown or black - with white spots on the neck, shoulders and flanks. Both the
males and the females have horns up to 25 cm in length. These animals are
excellent climbers who climb to higher regions in summer. They are pure
herbivores, depending on the season of the year on herbs, shoots and leaves of
deciduous trees, grasses, mosses,
in the Abruzzo even still live brown bears and wolves.
Mountain hares, marmots, chamois, wolves
and lynxes are at home in the Alps and in the wild in Calabria you can still
come across wild sheep and goats.
It is well known that a brown bear came to Germany every now and then, which,
as we know, always caused great excitement.
In Italy, on the other hand, around 50 animals live in the Alpine region and
around 50 in Abruzzo. The animals in the Italian Alps often come from Slovenia,
where they are relatively common.
It is estimated that between 1,000 and 2,500 wolves live on the Italian
peninsula, divided into the southern population in the Apennines and the
northern in the Alps. The local wolf - the Apennine wolf belongs to the Eurasian
wolf (Canis lupus lupus) - a subspecies of the wolf (Canis lupus). As in
Germany, all cattle breeders defend themselves against the predators.
The lynx population in the Alpine region of Italy is estimated to be around
The smallest mammal in Europe, the approximately 3-3.5 cm tall Etruscan shrew,
occurs in the entire Mediterranean area and also in Italy. The small shrew
species does not get very old with a life expectancy of 1.5 to 2.5 years and is
on the red list of endangered species.
The mouflons, which have also become rare, can be seen
The rather shy animals are also known as European wild sheep. They reach a size
of 65 to 90 cm and live on average 8 to 10 years.
Typical are the gray to yellowish colored saddle spots on the brown fur and the
horns of the males, which grow throughout life and can reach a length of 0.45 m.
The horns of the females are much shorter or nonexistent. The mouflons have a
well-developed sense of hearing and smell, but the sense of sight is best
Their diet includes grasses, herbs and woody plants, but also mushrooms and
Cats and dogs
A rather inconspicuous mammal can be found on almost every street corner, not
only in Rome - cats are almost as common here as humans. There are also numerous
stray dogs in Italy - especially in the south. Since the animals are
unfortunately often sick, you should definitely refrain from touching them.
Wall lizards, geckos
The green wall lizards are particularly common residents of Lake Garda in
northern Italy - but they are not only found there.
The nimble geckos can also be encountered almost anywhere.
The most widespread is the salamander, which can hardly be seen
when lying motionless in the sun.
-poisonous snakes The non-poisonous snakes that live here
include the dice snake and the Aesculapian snake, the Aesculapian, the god of
medicine. To this day, the Aesculapian snake winding around an Aesculapian staff
is a symbol for doctors and pharmacists.
Poisonous animals Poisonous spiders and scorpions are found
mainly in the remote, warm areas of southern Italy.
The native here viper and the asp, however, are more widespread.
In addition, the European horned viper, a very poisonous snake, lives in
northern Italy, and the less poisonous meadow viper lives throughout the
The following birds can be found in Italy in the country and on the
coast. Listed in alphabetical order:
Amur falcon, blackcap, European roller, thin-billed gull, Eleanor falcon, rock
grouse, griffon vulture, cuckoo cuckoo, collared flycatcher, Italian sparrow,
cap sparrow - a typical songbird of southern Italy, coral gull, sarcophagus,
black-headed kawk, sea-headed warbler, Sepia shearwater, steppe harrier, stone
grouse, wood warbler. Other birds are:
An interesting contemporary is the wallcreeper, which is also known as the
"hummingbird of the Alps" due to its long and slightly curved beak. Also
noticeable are its red wing feathers, which are particularly effective in
flight. Due to its otherwise gray plumage, the bird is rather difficult to see
when it is breeding in the rocks and it takes a lot of patience to find it.
Owls, cormorants, cardinals, sparrows On
the coast of Capo Vaticano owls, seagulls, cardinals and the Italian sparrows are
quite frequent guests. Cormorants can also be found in the waters of the
The seagulls (Laridae) form a bird family, which is divided into 10 kinds and
about 55 kinds. The most famous gulls are the black-backed gulls, black-headed
gulls, herring gulls, and common gulls. In Italy you can also find thin-billed
gulls and coral gulls - as listed.
Woodpeckers, sparrowhawks, tawny
Typical birds of Italy include the woodpeckers, sparrowhawks and tawny owls
Eurasian jay, fork harrier, buzzard
But also the jay, fork harrier and buzzard belong to the typical feathered
residents of the country.
Ducks, stilt, black-tailed godwit
In the wetlands one also encounters various species of duck, black-winged
black-winged godwit and also the godwit.
Bitterns, herons, reed warblers
These birds are mostly found in the bank cane, whereby the
seabirds can also be observed on shallower and inaccessible beaches.
Typical Alpine birds, such as the golden eagle or the mountain jackdaw, also
belong to the Italian avifauna.
Imperial eagle, ptarmigan, Alpine
chaffinch, eared, owls
Among the lucky ones, those are among the birdwatchers who received the imperial
eagle, ptarmigan, Alpine chaffinches, eared owls or to face.
Falcons and hawks
These birds of prey are also native to Italy.
Birds as a treat
Unfortunately, an estimated 25 million birds are caught in traps or shot every
year in Italy to bring them to the table as a treat. These include: chaffinches,
thrushes, skylarks, finches, bullfinches, lapwing, nightingales, robins,
starlings, goldfinches, lovebirds, quail, woodcock or wrens. The birds are sold
in delicatessen shops or at market stalls.
In the country's waters, the fish population is seriously threatened by the
still widespread black fishing, while some species thrive particularly well,
such as the endemic Lake Garda trout, which feed on crustaceans.
Tench, whitefish, pike, perch, sea bream, ringed bream, chub and barbel are the
However, fish farms - such as the trout farms in Sarcatal - are playing an
increasingly important role.
, in particular, are a great pleasure for water sports enthusiasts, who like to
romp around in the "family association" near the sailing or motor boats. Every
now and then you can watch them from the ferry.
Swordfish, Tuna, Sharks
Swordfish, schools of tuna and also smaller - and rarely larger - shark species
cavort in the coastal waters.
eels belong to the family of eel-like bony fish (Muraenidae). The family is
divided into about 12 different genera and about 200 species. The animals live
in rather shallow tropical and subtropical seas. There are two species in the
Mediterranean, namely the Mediterranean moray (Muraena helena) and the brown
moray (Gymnothorax unicolor). They are pure carnivores and usually hide in caves
and crevices in the rock and can also be found in coral reefs. They usually only
leave their hiding place at night to hunt for prey. Their bite is very much
feared by divers and can cause nasty injuries. The Mediterranean moray reaches a
length between 80 and 120 cm - with a weight between approx. 3.5 and 6 kg.
The common squid (Sepia officinalis) reaches a size of almost 50 cm and a
weight of up to about 4 kg. In addition to the Mediterranean, the animals can be
found on the coasts of Western Europe, North Africa, and in parts of the North
Sea. The animals are offered in many restaurants in different ways of
Oysters are not farmed in Italy, and they almost never appear here. But they
are imported as a delicacy and are "slurped" from the peel by connoisseurs raw
with a little lemon juice. Therefore we have briefly introduced this seafood
The flora of Italy is very diverse, which is not least due to the different
Deciduous and coniferous forests characterize the mountain flora, with firs
dominating from an altitude of 1,500 m.
On the coast, on the other hand, there is often a more desert-like landscape.
Characteristic trees of Calabria are pines, as well as orange and lemon trees,
which can be found along with olive trees mainly along individual coastal
On the Ionian Sea, the relatively undemanding eucalyptus trees are represented.
The black pine, which can grow up to 50 m high, is typical of the Sila. There
are also chestnut trees, cypresses and oaks that grow on the low slopes of the
Apennines and are also found in higher altitudes around Lake Garda.
From a height of around 1,800 m, the shrub vegetation predominates with only a
A specialty is the snakeskin pine, which owes its name to its bark, which is
reminiscent of snakeskin on the outside.
This pine, of which there are only about 1000 specimens left in the wild, is
represented in the Monte Pollino area.
The walnut plantation near Cardinale in the Serre is also worth a
visit. Centuries-old fir forests are also home to the Parco Nazionale Foreste
Casentinesi in Tuscany, where 6.5% of the area is protected.
Furthermore, oleander, pomegranate, fig, lemon and orange trees can be found in
Chestnuts grow on the island of Elba.
Numerous crops such as olive trees and citrus trees are grown on the Po
Valley. In the south of the country, on the other hand, date palms, fig,
pomegranate and almond trees as well as sugar cane and cotton grow
Grains and vegetables are mainly grown in the mountains. Bergamot, a citrus
fruit, only grows in the Aspromonte area, between Villa Jan Giovanni and Gioiosa
Jonica. The most valuable thing about it is hidden in the skin of the fruit. The
essential oil of the peel is used as a raw material for perfumes and is
contained in almost all perfumes. The approximately 4 m tall plant is grown
almost exclusively for this purpose, but the remains of the harvest are also
used in the production of juices, schnapps and jams.
The most important wood suppliers include cedars, pines, white poplars and
Peony, which is poisonous in itself, was previously used as an antispasmodic
and against epilepsy. However, this effect has never been proven. It can
allegedly also be used for skin and mucous membrane inflammation, fissures,
gout, rheumatism and diseases of the respiratory tract. In homeopathy, it is
used for hemorrhoids.
While the columbine was still of great medical importance in the Middle Ages, it
no longer plays a role in today's medicine. Nowadays it is only used in
homeopathy for nervousness and skin diseases.
Butcher's broom root has anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, and diuretic properties.
The use of the herbal active ingredients of the root stock is very common for
hemorrhoids and in preparations for venous disorders.
The rare holly from the holly family occurs in Calabria and is an evergreen
shrub or tree that can reach a height of 6 m and live up to 300 years. Other
names are piercing sleeve, piercing oak and palm or Christmas thorn. It is named
after its leathery and thorny toothed leaves, which are brightly colored on the
underside and dark green on the upper side. It blooms with inconspicuous small
white flowers between May and June, so that the fruits ripen in autumn. These
are first green, later coral red. Both the leaves and the fruit are poisonous,
and children in particular should be careful as a dose of 20-30 berries is
considered fatal to them. The symptoms of poisoning are vomiting, diarrhea and
The peony from the buttercup family is between 50 and 100 cm tall and flowers
from June to May. The large flowers with a diameter of 12 cm and petals with a
length of 5 - 8 cm are striking.
Most types of peony are common in Europe, Asia, and North America. It prefers
light and rocky mountain slopes to grow. Due to the alkaloid paenonin, this
plant is poisonous and causes gastrointestinal complaints and vomiting and colic
in excessive doses. In the correct dosage, it can also be used as a medicinal
The columbine is also slightly poisonous. Although the toxins are mainly
contained in the seeds, consuming about 20 g of the leaves already leads to
heart problems, nausea, vomiting and shortness of breath. However, the symptoms
usually go away soon.
Tuscany with its vineyards and grain fields offers an outstanding landscape
in the most beautiful colors.
Vineyards also characterize the Calabrian vegetation, whereby olive groves are
also very common here.
Geraniums, hibiscus, bougainvilleas and peperoncini grow on streets, parks or
even in gardens.
Butcher's broom is very popular with its red berries, as is the cyclamen, which
is mostly pink or purple in color.
Deforestation enabled the macchia, which consists of tree heather, laurel and
rockrose, to spread widely. Many rare plants can be found on the Monte Baldo
massif on Lake Garda. During the Ice Age it protruded from the glacier sea, so
that a fantastic splendor of plants could develop here, the origins of which go
back millions of years.
There are also pre-glacial features such as the dolomite devil's claw, which
belongs to the bluebell family, the endemic Monte Baldo anemone and the South
Bear's weed, columbine, elder boy and tiger lilies with their beautiful, not to
be overlooked orange-red flowers and the equally beautiful but poisonous peonies
also grow here.