Mauritius: Political System
Mauritius is a parliamentary republic in the Commonwealth. At the head of the
state is a president who is elected every five years by the National
Assembly. The National Assembly has 66 seats, of which 62 are elected by the
people, the remaining four are appointed by the electoral commission of the
losing parties to ensure the representation of the minorities.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
The national anthem of Mauritius was written by Jean Georges Prosper and set
to music by Philippe Oh San.
||In the English translation
|Glory to thee,
Motherland, oh motherland of mine,
Sweet is thy beauty,
Sweet is thy fragrance,
around thee we gather,
as one people,
as one nation,
In peace, justice and liberty,
Beloved country may God bless you,
for ever and ever.
|Glory is due to you,
fatherland, oh my fatherland,
sweet is your beauty,
sweet is your fragrance,
with you we gather,
As one people,
As one nation,
In peace, justice and freedom,
beloved land, may God bless you,
For forever and ever.
The flag of Mauritius was officially introduced on March 12, 1968,
Independence Day. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the four colors of the flag are interpreted as follows:
- Red stands for the blood shed in the struggle for independence.
- Blue symbolizes the Indian Ocean that surrounds the island
- Yellow stands for "the light of independence that shines over the island
- Green represents the country's vegetation
Mauritius: Known People
Léon Carvalho (1825-1897)
Born in Port Louis in 1825, Carvalho made a name for himself as a French singer
and opera director. Most recently he headed the Opéra-Comique and was awarded a
Knight of the Legion of Honor.
Malcolm de Chazal (1902-1981)
The Mauritian writer, painter and visionary from Vacoas is best known for his
Sens-Plastique, a work that consists of thousands of aphorisms and thoughts. De
Chazal spent most of his life in Mauritius.
Bertrand François Mahé de La Bourdonnais (1699-1753) In
1753, the French admiral of the navy died in Paris. From 1734 he was governor of
the Île de France, the current island of Mauritius. He expanded the island into
a thriving colony. In Port Louis, the capital of Mauritius, a statue
commemorates him, and the district capital Mahébourg is named after him.
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio (born 1940)
The French writer, born in 1940 and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature
since 2008, is a French citizen, but also maintains his Mauritian descent. He
spent many years of his childhood in Mauritius and describes himself as a
Loys Masson (1915-1969)
Loys Masson, a French writer, was born in Rose Hill, Mauritius in 1915 and
published his first works in his home country. The politically active Masson
wrote novels, short stories, poems, essays and plays in the course of his
work. Many of his novels and short stories deal with his homeland Mauritius.
Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (1900-1985)
Sir Ramgooloam was the first Prime Minister of Mauritius from 1961 to 1982 and
was then the Governor General of his country from 1983 until his death. He
achieved a lot in the course of his life: Under him, Mauritius became
independent from British colonial rule on March 12, 1968, which made him the
"father of Mauritius' independence". The son of the UN Human Rights Prize winner
is called Navin Ramgoolam and has been the Prime Minister of Mauritius since
2005. The botanical garden in Pamplemousses and the international airport of
Mauritius are named after Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam.
Francis Thomé (1850-1909)
In 1850, the French composer Francis Thomé was born in the Mauritian capital of
Khal Torabully (born 1956)
The works of the poet, who was born in 1956 in Port Louis, Mauritius, have been
translated into Creole, Bhojpuri, Urdu, Arabic and Chinese. In his works he
deals a lot with the culture and history of his native country.
Other personalities related to Mauritius
Paul Raymond Bérenger (born 1945)
Paul Raymond Bérenger was Prime Minister of Mauritius from 2003 to 2005.
Anerood Jugnauth (born 1930)
Sir Anerood Jugnauth was Prime Minister from 1982 to 1995. In 2000 he became
Prime Minister again until he took over the office of President of Mauritius in
2003. After ending his term in 2012, he was Prime Minister for the third time
from 2014 to 2017.
Karl Auguste Offmann (born 1940)
Karl Auguste Offmann was President of Mauritius from 2002 to 2003.
Veerasamy Ringadoo (1920-2000)
Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo was Governor General from 1986 to 1992 and President of
Mauritius in 1992.
Cassam Uteem (born 1941)
Cassam Uteem was President of Mauritius from 1992 to 2002.
A number of animals are endemic to Mauritius, which means that they can only
be found here. But overall, the fauna of Mauritius is not very rich in species
Before the arrival of humans, there were no other land-living mammals besides
bats and fruit bats. These bats include the Mauritian grave flutter (Taphozous
mauritianus) and the mascarene flying fox (Pteropus niger).
Since the Mascarene flying foxes eat mango and lychee fruits, the government
decided in October 2015 to kill around 20% of the total of 90,000 animals.
Mane deer, mongooses, long-tailed macaques as well as rabbits, goats and
other farm animals, but also rats and mice, were brought about by man. brought
to the island.
As on a number of islands in the western Indian Ocean, there were two species
of giant tortoise on Mauritius - the Mauritius saddleback giant tortoise
(Cylindraspis inepta) and the Mauritius giant tortoise (Cylindraspis
triserrata), but they have been extinct since 1800. The local reptiles are
mainly geckos - including the Günther's day gecko and ornament day gecko, as
well as skinks such as the Telfair skink and chameleons.
The approximately 1.50 m tall Round Island Boa (Casarea dussumieri) is
endemic to the small island in the north which it bears its name. There are no
poisonous snakes on Mauritius.
There are over 100 bird species in Mauritius, of which the endemic species in
particular are threatened or have already died out due to the destruction of
their habitats and the introduced mammals. Endemic bird species worth mentioning
are the Mascarene Spectacled Bird, the Mauritius Falcon, the Mauritian Parakeet
and the Rose Pigeon. Among other things, the Shepherd Maina, the Rotohrbülbül
and the Sperbertaube were introduced.
The best-known bird is the approximately 1m tall and flightless dodo (Raphus
cucullatus) represented in the island's coat of arms, but which has been extinct
since around 1690.
The parrotfish (Scarinae) are a subfamily of the wrasse family (Labridae). There
are about 70 species from 8 genera of the parrot fish. The fish shimmer in all
sorts of bright colors. The following species are worth mentioning, for example:
Green humpbacks (Bolbometopom muricatum), the green-spotted parrotfish
(Calotomus viridescens), the masked parrotfish (Cetoscarus bicolor), captain's
parrotfish (Chlorurus enneacanthus), ball-headed parrotfish (Chlorurus
Furthermore the banded parrotfish (Scarus caudofasciatus), the sickle-fin
parrotfish (Scarus falcipinnis), festive parrotfish (Scarus festivus),
green-necked parrotfish (Scarus frenatus), blue-banded parrotfish (Scarus
ghobban), spherical-headed parrotfish (Scarus globiceps) Parrotfish (Scarus
oviceps), common parrotfish (Scarus psittacus), the three-colored parrotfish
(Scarus tricolor) or the star-eyed parrotfish (Calotomus carolinus)
The lionfish - also known as tiger fish - is wonderful to look at. But it has
dangerous poisonous stings on the ends of its colored fins.
The stonefish owes its name to its appearance, as it can actually be mistaken
for a stone. The stonefish has small spines filled with poison on its back,
which cause dangerous poisoning if stepped on.
Because of this - but also because of the sea urchins and the sharp corals, you
should always wear bathing shoes with a solid rubber sole.
eels Moray eels look quite dangerous with their bare, rough
skin, hard, muscle-packed jaws and sharp teeth. As a rule, it only becomes
dangerous to people when they feel threatened.
Other fish within the coral reef include thick-lip fish, angelfish, box fish and
trumpet fish. Sea anemones with their long tentacles also live here.
Outside the coral reef you can see the blue marlin, barracudas, caranga,
sailfish. Jackfish, tuna, and watch.
But numerous shark species also live in the sea around Mauritius.
Mussels and snails
You can find mussels and snails on the beaches, especially after strong
storms. A number of species of spider, scorpion, or cone snail are becoming
increasingly rare, although they can still be purchased as souvenirs. It should
be noted that the import of most species is not permitted under the species
protection agreement and is a criminal offense.
If the snails are still alive on the beach, caution is advised, as the
harmless-looking cone snail, for example, squirts poison through the small teeth
on the tongue.
A few centuries ago, Mauritius was covered by a dense tropical rainforest.
Unfortunately, among them were large hardwood trees of excellent quality that
were felled by the Dutch and French and the wood was exported to be used for
furniture in Europe. The rest was used for shipbuilding.
In most of the island there is nothing left of the original vegetation. Instead,
crops were planted, especially sugar cane.
The banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis), also known as the banyan fig, belongs to
the subgenus Urostigma in the genus of figs (Ficus) in the mulberry family
(Moraceae). The tree can reach a height of about 20 m. It initially grows on
other trees (epiphytic) until it has grown so large that it literally crushes
the host tree so that it dies.
The trees have their origin in India, where they are considered sacred by the
The flame tree (Delonix regia) - also known as Flamboyant - belongs to the genus
Delonix in the subfamily of the carob family (Caesalpinioideae) in the legume
family (Fabaceae). The tree, which is up to m high, originally comes from
Madagascar. You can see them everywhere in Mauritius, especially in November and
December when its red flowers make the landscape shine beautifully.
The tree reaches a height of approx. 15 m, rarely more.
The horsetail-leaved casuarine (Casuarina equisetifolia), also known as the
kangaroo tree or casuarina tree, belongs to the genus of the casuarina
(Casuarina) in the casuarina family (Casuarinaceae). The plants native to
Australia and are quite salt-resistant were planted on the beaches of Mauritius
to protect against tropical storms. The trees reach heights between about 10 and
35 m, in very rare cases they are also significantly higher.
cane Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) was imported from Java
by the Dutch and now covers about 80% of the country's usable area.
The stalks have a diameter of 2.5 to 5 cm - with a height of 3 to 6 m
Many of the following tropical fruit trees have been introduced over the past
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) grows out of a small, approx. 50 cm high
perennial, whereby the pineapple in Mauritius is significantly smaller and
sweeter than the fruits available in Europe.
The banana plants (Musaceae) are a family in the order of the ginger-like
(Zingiberales). This family includes the three genera Musa, Ensete and Musella.
The banana trees reach a maximum height of 10 m.
The chayote (Sechium edule) is a climbing plant that grows up to over 5 m high
on a tree. The plant is grown as a vegetable in Mauritius. It belongs to the
cucurbitaceae family. Their fruits are about the size of a fist and have a taste
that is reminiscent of kohlrabi.
Chinese guavas grow in the highlands of Mauritius and here above Chamarel and
further towards the Grand Bassin. The fruits are about the size of a cherry and
ripen on small bushes from March to the end of May.
Cucumber tree The cucumber tree (Averrhoa bilimbi), also
known as bilimbi, is one of the two species from the genus of cucumber trees
(Averrhoa) with the star fruit.
The fruits - fleshy berries - are between 5 to 10 cm long and round or
pentagonal - with a diameter of 3.5 cm. The fruits are slightly more acidic than
those of the star fruit, so they are rarely eaten raw. Therefore, they are often
grated and made into a salad with vinegar and oil. The cucumber trees reach a
height of about 15 m
The jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus) belongs to the genus of breadfruit
trees (Artocarpus) in the mulberry family (Moraceae). The evergreen tree can
reach a height of up to 20 m. The fruit is called jackfruit and can weigh up to
20 kg. If you cut them open, they make them uncomfortable. However, if you take
out the pulp, you find that it tastes great.
The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) does not have the same meaning in Mauritius as
in other tropical countries. But now more of this palm is being planted again in
Mauritius. Since a coconut can weigh several kilograms, you should make sure
that this fruit does not fall on your head. If this happens from a great height,
it can even be fatal.
The mango tree (Mangifera indica) can reach heights of over 30 m. supplies fruit
and oil and is used as a medicinal plant. The mango fruit is approx. 10 cm long
and oval with a yellow pulp.
The papaya tree (Carica papaya), reaches a height between 5 to 10 m high. The
fruits are up to 30 cm long. The skin of the fruit is light yellow. The not yet
ripe fruits can be processed as vegetables and are used, for example, for
chutneys, curries, and salsas. In northeastern Thailand and Laos, Som Tam (Thai)
or Tam Mak Hung (Lao), a spicy salad made from unripe fruit with crabs in fish
sauce and sticky rice, is the national dish. The ripe pulp, on the other hand,
has a rather sweet taste, which can be enhanced with lemon juice, sugar or
Star fruit tree
The star fruit tree (Averrhoa carambola), also known as carambola, is one of the
two species of the cucumber tree (Averrhoa), along with the cucumber tree. The
fruits have a striking pentagonal shape with a slightly sour flesh. The tree
usually grows 10 m high, very rarely even higher.
The tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) bears pods or pods, the Indian dates,
which are used as food.
The tamarind tree is an evergreen, slow-growing tree that can grow up to 30 m
high. Its area of origin is East Africa, from where it came to India.