Pakistan: Political System
Pakistan is theoretically a parliamentary democracy with a bicameral system,
but the president has special rights (Pakistan is de facto a presidential
regime). The country is suffering heavily from the conflict with India and the
sometimes terrible terrorist attacks by extremist Muslims.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|Islami Jumhuriat Pakistan
Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the national anthem of Pakistan was written by Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez Jullandhuri
and set to music by Ahmed Ghulamali Chagla. It became the country's official
anthem in 1954.
In Urdu, the country's official language, but in Latin letters:
|Pak sarzamin shad bad
Kishware haseen shad bad
Tunishane azmealishan arze Pakistan
Pak sarzamin ka nizam quwate akhuwati awam
Qaum, mulk, Sultanate
Painda ta binda bad shad, bad man zele murad.
Parchame sitarao hilal
Rahbare tarraqio ka mal
Tarjumane mazishane hal jane istaqbal
Sayyai, khudae zul jalal.
Pakistan: Known People
Politicians and rulers
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876 - 1948)
Muhammad Ali Jinnah is one of the most important political figures of modern
Asia and is considered to be the founder of Pakistan.
The charismatic resistance fighter in British India is honored in the
country as Qaid-e Azam (German Greatest Leader) or Baba-e-Qaum (German
Father of the Nation).
He is also honored by the fact that his birthdays and deaths are national
holidays in Pakistan.
In Karachi, where Jinnah was born and also died, the Mazar-e-Quaid mausoleum
is one of the city's most important sights.
- Shaukat Aziz (born March 6, 1949)
He was Prime Minister and Minister of Finance of Pakistan.
- General M. Ayub Khan (1907 - 1947)
He was Prime Minister, Head of State and Defense Minister of Pakistan from
Supported by the army, he began a series of reform measures (including the
introduction of a controlled democracy).
Pressure from the opposition led to his resignation in 1969.
- Yahya Khan (1917-1980)
He was President of Pakistan from 1969-1971.
- Zulfikar Bhutto (1928-1979)
Pakistani President from 1971 to 1973 and Prime Minister until the military
coup of General Zia Ul-Haq in 1977.
- General Zia Ul-Haq (1924-1988)
was Pakistan's Supreme Commander after his military coup from 1977 to
1988. It was not until 1985 that he repealed martial law and made himself
- Nawaz Sharif (born 1949)
had been Finance Minister since 1981. In 1990 he was sworn in as Prime
- Benazir Bhutto (born 1953) was
Head of Government of Pakistan from 1988 to 1996. Constitutional amendments
under General Zia ul-Haq in 1985 had pushed the Islamization of society
forward and put a strain on democratic institutions.
In 1988, after the death of General Zia, the leader of the PPP party,
Benazir Bhutto, became Prime Minister for 20 months.
In 1990 she was deposed and Nawaz Sharif was appointed Prime Minister.
Benazir Bhutto formed the federal government. In 1997, after parliament was
again dissolved by the President, the PML-N won an overwhelming victory with
Chairman Nawaz Sharif.
The religious-conservative Mohammad Rafiq Tarar, nominated by Prime Minister
Sharif, was elected the 9th President of Pakistan in 1997.
Mohammad Rafiq Tarar (born 1929)
was President of Pakistan from 1998 to 2001.
- General Pervez Musharraf (born 1943) has
exercised power since a bloodless coup in 1999, and he has also been
President since June 20, 2001. This is the fourth time in its short history
that Pakistan will be ruled by the military.
The dictator who came to power through the bloodless coup calls himself the
Writer and poet
- Muhammad Iqbal (1873/77-1938)
was an Indian poet and philosopher. He is regarded as the most important
Urdu poet and "spiritual father" of Pakistan.
- Aftab Husain (born 1962)
is a writer, journalist, publisher, university teacher, literary critic,
translator and founder of a literary newspaper.
For political reasons he had to leave his home country and found asylum in
- Tariq Ali (born 1943)
The writer, journalist and filmmaker studied politics and
philosophy at Oxford.
His resistance to the military dictatorship in Pakistan prevented his return
to his homeland, so that London became an exile for him.
- Abul A'la Al-Mawdudi (1903-1979)
He wrote mainly in terms of religion and is considered a strict Islamist.
Other personalities, Nobel Prize winners
Nayyar Ali Dada (born 1945)
The Indian-Pakistani architect was able to build the first building of modern
architecture in Pakistan with his first major project, the Al-Hamra Arts Complex
in Lahore, and to achieve great fame for it.
The multiple award-winner constructed the Serena Hotel, the Saudi-Pak Tower, the
Punjab House and the Fatima Jinnah Park in Islamabad.
Dr. Abdul Kadir Khan, also Abdul Qadeer Khan (born
The Pakistani engineer developed the Pakistani nuclear weapons program. He has
also sold nuclear weapons technology to Libya, Iran and North Korea.
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (1948-1997)
was a Pakistani musician. His music can be assigned to the Qawwali, an ecstatic
The special meaning of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan lies in the merging of the six
centuries old Qawwali tradition with elements of modern music. Vedat
Dalokay (1927-1991) Dalokay, who was mayor of the Turkish capital
Ankara from 1973 to 1977, was also a famous architect, especially for Islamic
religious buildings. The Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, which opened in 1984, was
one of his most important works. It is considered to be one of the largest and
most modern Islamic sanctuaries on earth.
Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis (1913-1975)
The Greek city planner distinguished himself as the main architect of Pakistan's
capital Islamabad and of its sister city Rawalpindi.
Malala Yousafzai (born 1997)
Malala Yousafzai was born on July 12, 1997. In 2012 she was the victim of a
Taliban assassination attempt, which she survived at Queen Elizabeth Hospital in
The Taliban cited their commitment to schooling for girls as the reason for the
She received the Nobel Peace Prize of 2014 for her commitment and her stand
against the oppression of young people and for their right to education.
Feroze Khan (1904-2005)
was a Pakistani hockey player. As a member of the Indian national team, he was
Olympic champion at the Summer Olympics in Amsterdam in 1928. Khan was the
oldest living Olympic champion until his death.
Abdus Salam (
1926-1996) Abdus Salam was a Pakistani physicist and Nobel Prize winner. He
researched the interactions between elementary particles.
There are still around 190 different mammal species to be found in Pakistan,
with numerous mammals being exterminated in the 19th and 20th centuries through
hunting and the destruction of their habitats - for example the Indian elephant,
the Bengal tiger, the Asiatic lion or the cheetah.
A subspecies of the brown bear occurs in the Karakoram.
Brown bears are strongly built, have a long head with a pointed snout, small
eyes and short, clearly rounded ears. The strong neck ends in a characteristic,
The short, about 10 cm long tail is almost hidden in the thick, shaggy fur.
The color ranges from yellow-white, through various shades of brown to
black. With a length of 170 cm and a weight of 70 kg, the bears of the Alps are
the smallest representatives.
The largest subspecies, and thus the largest land predators of all, are the
Kodiak bears of Alaska and the Kamchatka bears of East Asia. With a shoulder
height of 150 cm and a length of up to 3 m and a weight of almost 800 kg.
In nature, brown bears can live up to 25 years old, in zoological gardens they
are significantly older.
Brown bears prefer dense, contiguous forest areas, but are also found in the
tundra and subalpine regions.
They are good swimmers and like to be near water. They mainly feed on
plant-based foods, such as grasses, herbs, berries, seeds and nuts.
You can find a detailed description of the European braumbear at Goruma here
Hanuman monkeys These animals belong to the genus of the
Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus) within the family of the vervet monkeys
(Cercopithecidae). They are cultural followers and are considered sacred in
They got their name after Hanuman - an Indian god in monkey form.
The animals reach a length of between 40 to 80 cm, with a tail up to 110 cm
long. Your weight is a little under 25 kg. The fur of the animals is colored
gray on the upper side, while the underside is whitish or orange-yellow.
Her hairless face is black or purple and impresses with its pronounced bulges
above the eyes.
Their diet consists of plants and insects. The females give birth to a young
every two years.
In some cities they have become almost a nuisance, but are still being fed by
Leopards belong to the group of big cats alongside lions, tigers and
jaguars. The animal belongs to the same genus as the snow leopard (Panthea) but
belongs to the species "Panthea paedus". There are eight subspecies of the
The animals are found in Africa and parts of Asia, with the largest population
living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The subspecies "Indian leopard" (Panthera pardus fusca) lives in Pakistan.
A detailed and illustrated representation of the leopard can be found at
Goruma here >>>
Pfeifhase do not look much like the well-known field hares, in earlier times
they were even regarded as rodents. There are around 30 species of the pigeon
hares (Ochotona) genus.
The animal is on average 20 cm long - with a spread of 15 to about 25 cm. Their
weight can reach approx. 200 g. In addition to Asia, the animals are also found
The animals get their name from the high-pitched whistling tones with which they
warn each other in case of danger.
The food of the animals, which can be found at altitudes up to almost 6,000 m,
consists of grasses, herbs or plant stems. The female gives birth to up to 12
cubs two to three times a year.
leopards Snow leopards are a rare type of big cat that lives in
the remote areas of the high mountains and forests of Central Asia at heights of
up to 6,000 m. Although it looks similar to the leopard - hence the name - it
belongs to a different species.
The animal belongs to the family of cats (Delidae) and to the genus of the real
big cats (Panthera). The scientific name of the animals is "Panthera uncia."
In addition to Pakistan, the animals can also be found in Nepal, China,
Afghanistan, Mongolia and Russia. Unfortunately, their population has been
severely decimated by humans.
It is estimated that there are only 3,000 to 5,000 animals left. One of the few
protected areas for the animals has been established in Pakistan.
The snow leopard lives as a loner. After a gestation period of 90 to 100 days,
the female usually gives birth to between three to five young.
The animals reach a length of approx. 130 cm, whereby their tail can reach a
length of up to 100 cm - with a weight between 40 and 70 kg. Your shoulder
height reaches about 60 cm.
The prey of the snow leopard is blue sheep, ibex, musk deer, hares, boars,
marmots, whistle hares, yaks, goats and domestic animals.
These animals are widely known to us as Alpine Ibex. But the Siberian or Asian
ibex live here, belonging to the genus of goats (Capra) and to the species of
However, here and there the animals are also viewed as a subspecies of
the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex).
The animals live at altitudes above 6,500 m, but migrate to lower regions in
They have a head body length of 130 to 165 centimeters, a shoulder height of 65
to 110 centimeters and a weight of 50 to 130 kilograms, the females being
smaller and lighter than the males.
The males and the females have horns, whereas those of the females are small and
slightly bent backwards. The horns of the males are significantly longer and
stronger with a length of up to 1 m.
Wild goats, Bezoar
goats The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) or the Bezoar goat belong to the bovidae
family and to the genus Capra (wild
goats). which is common in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Bezoar goats are excellent climbers and jumpers. It is interesting that adult
animals look for vantage points that give them a good overview of their
Like a guard, they warn the pack from here when a danger is approaching. The
sense of sight, hearing and smell are well developed in the Bezoar goats
The animals have a head body length of 1.2 to 1.6 m and a 15 to 20 cm long
tail. Your shoulder height varies between 0.7 to 1 m - with a weight of 25 to 45
The color of their fur is reddish gray-brown and a black eel line stretches
across their back. A black band runs from the shoulder to the chest and the
front of the neck. The belly and the inside of the thighs are white.
A black separating stripe runs between the coloring of the upper side and the
Both males and females have horns that can reach a length of up to four feet in
males. The horns of the females, on the other hand, only reach a length between
20 to 30 cm
The animals are found in mountainous regions up to an altitude of about 4,200 m,
but during winter they also come down to sea level.
The Bezoar goats live in herds that can be up to 50 animals.
The animals are pure herbivores that feed on grasses, herbs and other parts of
mating occurs during winter. Afterwards, after a gestation period of around 150
days, the females give birth to one or two young - rarely three - weighing
around 2 kg.
In addition to humans, lynxes, Persian leopards as well as golden eagles and
other large birds of prey that prey on young animals are the most important
In the past there were also tigers and lions, but they are now almost extinct.
Other mammals include screw goats, steppe sheep, giant wild sheep and lynxes
Marco Polo giant wild sheep and screw goats can be found in the Chitral Gol
The pipe cat is the most common local cat species native to the river plains.
The caracal or desert lynx can be found in open steppe and semi-desert
landscapes. Collared bears live in the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush and in the
mountains of Balochistan.
Wild boars are very common and there are also many rodents.
Indian gazelles and stag goat antelopes have been reintroduced in national parks
such as Kirthar National Park. Indian rhinos were released into the wild along
with deer goats and Nilgau antelopes in Lal Suhanra National Park.
There are over 200 reptiles in Pakistan - including 110 species of lizards
and around 80 species of snakes and 15 species of turtles.
Particularly noteworthy among the poisonous snakes are the small but very
poisonous kraits, which follow people to their homes and are responsible for
The spectacled snake, the MCMalon viper, the Central Asian cobra and the
Forsteins cat snake in the east of the country also live here.
It is estimated that there are 8,000 deaths from snake bites annually.
Pakistan's bird life includes almost 670 native and migratory bird
species. Unfortunately, many large birds of prey such as eagles, buzzards,
falcons and vultures have been severely decimated and the early blue peacock,
which is typical of the country, only occurs in small populations.
On the other hand, passerines, swallows, chicken birds, parrots, lapwing,
woodpeckers, pigeons and corvids are represented in large numbers.
Water birds such as ducks, herons and flamingos can also be found in large
numbers - on the other hand pelicans have become rather rare.
The country's national bird is the chukar chicken.
Around 500 species of fish live in the waters of Pakistan in the Arabian
Sea - a tributary of the Indian Ocean and around 125 species of freshwater fish.
A subspecies of the Ganges dolphin lives in the Indus. The swamp crocodile and
the gharial also live here.
In the rivers and lakes you can find Catlabarke up to 1.80 m long.
In the Arabian Sea you can find a number of shark species, whales and the whale
Eels, anemonefish, numerous types of perch, surgeon fish, trigger fish, bat
fish, lionfish, pike, hussar fish, puffer fish, marrow fish, sea bream, parrot
fish, flat fish, scorpion fish and soldier fish also live here