Senegal: Political System
Senegal gained independence from France on August 20, 1960.
Senegal is a presidential republic with a president as head of state and a prime
minister as head of government. The unicameral parliament, the National
Assembly, consists of 120 members who are elected every five years.
The head of state is also elected every five years; re-election is possible
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|République du Sénégal
Republic of Senegal
Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons (Take your
Koras, hit the marimbas) has been Senegal's national anthem since 1960. The text
was written by Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001), the country's first
president. The music comes from Herbert Pepper. Koras and marimbas are
traditional musical instruments used by Senegalese residents.
||In English translation
|Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafons
Le Lion rouge a rugi Le Dompteur de la Brousse
d'un bond s'est élancé dissipant les ténébres
Soleil sur nos terreurs Soleil sur notre espoir.
Debout frères voiciRefrain
l'Afrique rassemblée - Fibers de mon c'ur vert
épaule countre épaule Mes plus que fréres O Sénégalais, debout!
Unissons la mer et les sources, Unissons la Steppe et la forêt Salut
Afrique mère. Salut Afrique mère.Sénégal, toi le fils de l'écume du
Toi surgi de la nuit au galop des chevaux,
Rends-nous, oh 'rends-nous l' honneur de nos Ancêtres,
Splendides comme ébene et forts comme le muscle
Nous disons droits- l'épée n'a pas une bavure.refrainSénégal,
nous faisons nôtre ton grand dessein:
Rassembler les poussins à l'abri des milans Pour en faire, de l'Est à
l'Ouest, du Nord au Sud,
Dressé, un même peuple, un peuple sans couture,
Mais un peuple tourné vers tous les vents du monde.refrainSénégal,
comme toi, comme tous nos héros,
Nous serons durs sans haine et les deux bras ouverts L'épée, nous la
mettrons dans la paix du fourreau,
Car le travail sera notre arme et la parole.
Le Bantou est un frère, et l'Arabe et le Blanc.refrain
Mais que si l'ennemi incendie nos Frontières
Nous serons tous dressés et les armes au poing:
Un Peuple dans sa foi défiant tous les malheurs,
Les jeunes et les vieux, les hommes et les femmes.
La Mort, oui! Nous disons la Mort, mais pas la honte.
|Pluck your Koras, drum the balafons.
The red lion roared. The lord
of the bush
swings up in the leap, driving away the darkness.
let the sun shine on our fear and the sun on our hope.
Stand upright - look, my brothers - the risen Africa
fibers of my green heart.
Shoulder to shoulder with you who are more than brothers to me,
The sea and springs are united, steppe and forest are united!
Hail, mother Africa, hail, mother Africa.
Senegal, you son of the foam of the lion, emerged
from the night at the gallop of the horses,
give us back, oh, give us back the honor of our ancestors!
Magnificent as black ebony and strong as the muscle
We say it clearly and distinctly - the sword has no nick.
Senegal, let's make your big intention our own: to round up the
chicks for protection from the Milan,
to make one people out of the east and the west, the north and the
south, who have risen, a people without seams
but one People who face all the winds of the world.
Senegal, like all our heroes,
we will be tough without hatred and have two arms open.
We will put the sword in the peace of its scabbard,
for the work will be our weapon and the word.
The Bantu is a brother and the Arab and the white.
But when the enemy sets fire to our borders, they
will stand up like everyone else and have arms in their fists:
a people in their faith who defies all misfortune,
the young and the old, the men and the women.
Death, yes! We say death, but not shame.
The national flag (country flag) of Senegal was officially introduced on
August 20, 1960. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag have the following meaning:
- Red is a reminder of the blood spilled in the struggle for freedom.
- Yellow stands for blooming landscapes and as a symbol of the country's wealth.
- Green stands for the hope for a good one and also for the largest three
religious groups in the state - the Muslims, Christians and traditionalists.
Senegal: Known People
Malick Badiane (born 1984)
The basketball player from Senegal, born in Thiès in 1984, is mainly used in the
center position. Badiane played in the course of his career for TV Langen and
the Senegalese national team.
Amadou Bamba (1853-1927)
The founder of the Mourid Brotherhood, born in M'Backe in 1927, is buried in
Touba, where the Great Mosque from 1963 rises above his grave.
Madjiguène Cissé (born 1951)
Born in the capital Dakar, Madjiguène Cissé is a Senegalese women activist who
was also the spokesperson for the French Sans Papiers movement. As the founder
of the women's network for sustainable development in Africa, she is committed
to education and equality for women.
Isaac Forster (1903-1984)
The Senegalese lawyer from Dakar was a judge at the International Court of
Justice in The Hague from 1964 to 1982.
Habib Koité (born 1958)
Koité is a musician from Mali who was born in 1958 in the Senegalese city of
Thiès. He celebrated his greatest successes with his band Bamada.
Soriba Kouyaté (1963-2010)
Soriba Kouyaté was a kora player and griot from Senegal. The famous director
Spike Lee liked to use Kouyaté's music in his films.
Jean-Louis Lafosse (1941-1981)
The French racing driver who was born in Dakar in 1941 was just 40 years old.
Djibril Diop Mambéty (1945-1998)
Mambéty made a name for himself as an actor and director. The Senegalese most
recently worked on the trilogy “Histoires de petites gens”, which he was able to
complete as far as possible before his death.
Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye (born 1958)
The Senegalese politician, who has been Prime Minister of Senegal since 2009,
was born in Kaolack.
Papa Waigo N'Diaye (born 1984)
N'Diaye, a Senegalese soccer player from Saint-Louis, is currently playing in
the position of striker for the Fiorentina.
Youssou N'Dour (born 1959)
If someone is responsible for the development of Senegalese popular music, then
it is certainly Youssou N'Dour, the singer and composer from Dakar, who is a
superstar in his country.
Ibrahim Baye Niass (1900-1975)
The Islamic scholar and saint, who died in London in 1975, was an important
leader in West Africa as a marabout.
Omar Pene (born 1956)
Omar Pene, a Senegalese Mbalax singer and composer from Dakar, is still
celebrated as one of the most influential singers in Africa.
Ousmane Sembène (1923-2007) One of
the most important Senegalese writers and directors, Sembène is also honored as
the father figure of sub-Saharan cinema.
Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) In
1906 in Joal, Senegal, Léopold Sédar Senghor, one of the country's most
important politicians, was born. The philologist, who is also active as a poet,
served as President of Senegal from 1960 to 1980. His policy was shaped by a
course of reconciliation with the former colonial powers.
MC Solaar (born 1969)
In 1969, the famous French rapper MC Solaar was born in Dakar. His real name was
Habib Thiam (born 1933)
Thiam served first as Prime Minister of Senegal from 1981 to 1983 and again from
1991 to 1998. On July 3, 1998, he resigned from his position.
Patrick Vieira (born 1976)
The French soccer player from Dakar is currently playing for Manchester
City. The son of Cape Verdean parents is one of the most famous footballers in
Me Abdoulaye Wade (born 1926)
The studied lawyer and founder of the Democratic Party of Senegal is currently
President of Senegal. One of his greatest achievements was the defense of the
secular state against attacks by radical Islamists.
Kéba Mbaye (1924-2007)
The Senegalese judge and sports official was President of the Supreme Court of
Senegal and Vice-President of the International Court of Justice in The Hague
between 1987 and 1991.
Animals are rarely found in the wild, as agriculture and increasing
colonization are increasingly restricting their habitat. The heavily forced
logging also causes problems for the animal world.
The elephant population has recovered somewhat and less than
200 lions. Both can be found on the upper reaches of the Gambia River and in
the Niokolo Koba National Park.
Monkey species such as monkeys, baboons and chimpanzees are somewhat more
Hippos, water buffalo, gazelles, antelopes and warthogs also live in the
Giraffes, which were widespread in the Ferlo savannah 100 years ago, are now
only found in the Bandia Reserve. For this they had to be imported from South
Africa. Other rare mammals include dromedaries, jackals, porcupines, the
desert fox (fennec) and hyenas.
Reptiles (without snakes)
Rare reptiles are almost all local turtle species. Crocodiles, iguanas and
monitor lizards are a little more common.
Senegal has a very diverse bird life, as both native and European migratory
birds can find largely intact living conditions and nesting sites.
In Djoudj National Park, the world's third largest bird reserve, which is
located in the mouth of the Senegal River, there are an estimated 400 species of
Pelicans are very common, other typical representatives are vultures and
The unlinked snakes are not (yet) shown at Goruma.
African house snake
The African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus) is a non-toxic species of snake,
of which there are six subspecies. Their males are 60 to 80 cm and the females
80 to 100 cm.
African spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis)
Striped house snake
the striped house snake (Boaedon lineatus)
Common puff adder (Bitis arietans)
Green mamba (Dendroaspis viridis)
Ball python (Python regius)
The Mali cobra (Naja katiensis)
Black and white cobra (Naja melanoleuca)
Black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)
Senegal cobra (Naja senegalensis)
Uraeus snake (well, well)
Barracudas, epinephelus - a group of groupers - and tuna swim in the Atlantic
off Senegal. The local specialty lobster (lobster) can also be found in the
sea. The following marine mammals are worth mentioning:
- Blue whales
whales - Humpback whales
- Clymene dolphins
- Bottlenose dolphins
- Slender dolphins
- Striped dolphins
- Killer whales
- Chinstrap dolphins
Senegal is very rich in vermin, but you should be particularly careful with
the widespread anopheles mosquito. In the event of a bite,
this transmits the often fatal disease malaria. Malaria is the most widespread
disease in tropical and subtropical climates and against which there is no
The vegetation of the north is characterized by the thorn bush savannah, in
the interior of the country by the dry savannah. This is determined by the
sparse growth of grass, acacias and the baobab,
the baobab tree, which is characteristic of West Africa and
has also become the national tree of Senegal. This tree with
its strikingly shaped trunk and silver-gray bark belongs to the wool tree family
and can live up to 1000 years. Furthermore, it is characterized by its
cucumber-shaped and wood-skinned fruits as well as fatty seeds. The baobab can
store up to 5000 liters of water in the dry season, but then it loses all its
leaves in order to protect itself from excessive evaporation and thus from dying
The tree population gradually increases further south. Tamarind and flamboyant trees determine
the landscape, as does the head-high elephant grass. This
grows in humid or temporarily flooded savannas and can reach heights of up to 6
In the south of the country you can already find dense subtropical forests
of baobab, bamboo, kapok trees, mahogany and teak
Kapok trees reach heights of up to 70 m and are
characterized by fold-like roots at the base of the tree. The German name is the
" Wollbaum ", in English it is known as the " Silk
cotton tree ". This is because there are cotton-like hairs in the fruit
capsules, which are used to stuff mattresses.
The shea butter tree is also common. It is used to make
shea butter and especially cotton.
The west of Senegal, along the rivers of the Sine-Saloum, the Gambis River and
the Casamance River, is rich in dense mangrove vegetation. The
mangrove population is at great risk due to the increasing demand for firewood.
The kola nuts offered everywhere are not poisonous, but
inedible for the European palate. The locals claim that these chewed well and
dosed accordingly have a strong stimulating effect.
There is intensive peanut cultivation along the
Dakar-Tambacounda railway line , as well as rice cultivation in
the Casamance. Oil and coconut palms, orange, lime, papaya and mango
trees shape the landscape there. Bananas are also
native to Senegal.
The tamarind tree originally comes from India, the fruits
of which are used to make fruit purees, sauces and lemonades. The evergreen flamboyant (flame
tree) comes from Madagascar. It has double pinnate leaves and bright red
inflorescences, which is also the reason for its name.