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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka: Political System

Sri Lanka is a democratic-socialist republic. The head of state and head of government is the president, who is elected for 6 years. The parliament is a unicameral system with 225 members.

Sri Lanka: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

National anthem

The national anthem of Sri Lanka

In Sinhalese language In the English translation
Sri Lanka Matha,

Apa Sri Lanka

Namo Namo Namo Namo Matha.

Sundara siri bharini,

Surandi athi sobhamana Lanka

Dhanya dhanaya neka mal pala thuru piri jaya bhoomiya ramya

Apa hata sapa siri setha sadhana,

Jee vanaye Matha!

Piliganu mana apa bhakti pooja,

Namo Namo Matha.

Apa Sri Lanka,

Namo Namo Namo Namo Matha.

Obave apa vidya,

Obamaya apa sathya.

Obave apa shakti,

Apa hada thula bhakti.

Oba apa aloke,

Apage anuprane.

Oba apa jeevana ve,

Apa muktiya obave,

Nava jeevana demine,

Nithina apa pubudhu karan Matha.

Gnana veerya vadavamina ragena yanu,

Mana jaya bhoomi kara.

Eka mavekuge daru kala bavina,

Yamu yamu wee nopama,

Prema vadamu sama bheda durara da,

Namo Namo Matha.

apa sri lanka,

namu namu, namu, namu Matha!

Sri Lanka, mother, we adore you!

Thrive and blossom in happiness,

you beautiful one, full of grace and love, rich

in grain and delicious fruits,

in fragrant, shining flowers,

you give us life and all our well-being,

happy and victorious country,

we praise you with gratitude,

Sri Lanka, We adore you

National flag

The national flag (national flag) of Sri Lanka was officially introduced on December 17, 1978. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the golden lion against a wine-red background holds a sword in his right front paw. In each of the four corners is the gold-colored leaf of a bodhi tree. The lion symbolizes bravery and the four leaves represent the four Buddhist states of metta (goodness), karuna (compassion), mudita (compassionate) and upekkhā (equanimity.

Sri Lanka flag and coat of arms

The left part The flag consists of two green and saffron-colored stripes of equal size, the saffron-colored stripes standing for the Tamil ethnic group and the green for the Muslim residents of the island state. The wine-red background stands for Sinhalese, the majority of the country’s residents. The yellow frame symbolizes the unity of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka: Known People

Politicians and rulers

  • Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (1916 - 2000)

    She was the first female Prime Minister of Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, and the first head of government worldwide.

    Her first term lasted from 1960 to 1965. After losing the majority in the elections in 1965, she then lost her office. But she won the elections in 1970 with a two-thirds majority. From 1970 to 1977 she served again as Prime Minister and also as Foreign, Defense and Planning Minister. Under their leadership, Ceylon received a new constitution in August 1972 and became a republic - previously it belonged to the Commonwealth as Dominion. In addition, the country was renamed "Sri Lanka".

  • Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born 1945)

    She emerged victorious from the parliamentary elections on August 16, 1994. The President Dingiri entrusted her with the formation of a government and sworn in on August 19, 1994 as the new Prime Minister. In the presidential elections that followed on November 9, 1994, she also ran for election without victory. Then she was sworn in on November 13, 1994, female head of state of her country. She stayed until 2005. She appointed her own mother to be Prime Minister, who succeeded her in this office.

  • Mahinda Rajapaksa (born 1945)

    He was President of the country from 2015 to 2015.

  • Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (1899-1959) Colombo

    airport was named after this Prime Minister of the Ceylon at that time, who served from 1956 to 1959 (= Bandaranaike International Airport).

Writer and poet

  • Arthur Charles Clarke (born 1917)

    The English science fiction writer, who has lived in the city since 1956, is undisputedly one of the most famous residents of Colombo.

  • WASilva (1890-1957)

    writer. He wrote numerous books and novels and published newspapers and magazines.

  • Arumuga Navalar (1822-1879)

    writer and translator.

  • Dr. Ediriweera Sarachchandra (1914-1996)

    writer, poet and diplomat. He wrote the first play in Sri Lanka.

  • Gunadasa Amarasekera (born 1929)

    writer and poet.

  • GB Senanayake (1913-1985)

    writer.

  • K. Jayatillake (born 1926)

    writer and literary critic.

  • Sugathapala De Silva (1928-2002)

    writer and playwright.

  • Mahagama Sekara (1929-1976)

    writer and poet.

  • Simon Navagattegama (1940-2005)

    writer, poet, playwright and actor.

Others

  • Bevis Bawa (1909-1992), landscape architect and sculptor. The loving care and decoration of the Brief Gardens in Beruwela go back to Bawa.
  • Geoffrey Bawa (1919-2004), architect. Bawa is considered to be the most important architect in Sri Lanka. His work includes the Parliament building of Sri Lanka, the Ruhunu University of Matara and the Old Shepherd's Chuch in Banderawela.
  • Susanthika Jayasinghe (born 1975)

    athlete. She won the bronze medal at the Summer Olympics in 2000.

  • Velupillai Prabhakaran (born 1954)

    leader of the Tamil Tigers (LTTE), which fights for the independence of the Tamils, including through terrorist means. The LTTE has been declared a terrorist organization in the USA, Great Britain, Canada, India and the EU states.

  • Godwin Samararatne (1932-2000)

In the year 2000, this Buddhist meditation teacher, who had directed the Nilambe Meditation Center near Kandy for almost 20 years, died in Peradeniya near Kandy.

Samararatne was a teacher who taught the meditation practice of Vipassana and Metta in a humorous and lifelike way in many countries in Europe, Asia and Africa, giving many people an orientation in their lives. At the time of his death he was considered one of the most internationally known personalities of Theravada Buddhism.

  • Nalin Chandra Wickramasinghe (born 1939)

    astrophysicist. In 1986 he received the "International Dag Hammarskjold Gold Medal for Science" for his research in the field of interstellar dust.

Sri Lanka: animals

Mammals

Elephants

You can still find wild Asian elephants on the island.

It is worth mentioning the Elephant Transit Home (ETH) in the south of Sri Lanka, which takes in orphaned and injured baby elephants and nurses them back to health.

Hanuman monkeys These animals belong to the genus of the Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus) within the family of the vervet monkeys (Cercopithecidae).

They are cultural followers and are considered sacred in India. They got their name after Hanuman - an Indian god in monkey form.

The animals reach a length of between 40 to 80 cm, with a tail up to 110 cm long. Your weight is a little under 25 kg. The fur of the animals is colored gray on the upper side, while the underside is whitish or orange-yellow.

Her hairless face is black or purple and impresses with its pronounced bulges above the eyes.

Their diet consists of plants and insects. The females give birth to a young every two years.

In some cities they have become almost a nuisance, but are still being fed by the people.

Sri Laka leopards

Leopards belong to the group of big cats alongside lions, tigers and jaguars. The animal belongs to the species "Panthea paedus". There are eight subspecies of the leopard.

The animals are found in Africa and parts of Asia, with the largest population living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The subspecies "Sri Lanka Leopard" (Panthera pardus kotiya) lives in Sri Lanka - and only here. About 400 to 600 specimens still live

here.The Sri Lankan leopard is usually slightly larger than the other subspecies with a body length of about 110 to 150 cm and a shoulder height of up to 75 cm.

However, the females are 30 to 40 kg lighter than the 50 to 70 kg males.

You can find a detailed and illustrated representation of the leopard at Goruma here >>>

Hanuman langurs, hat monkeys and white-bearded langurs also live here in Sri Lanka.

Sambars, which belong to the genus of noble deer, axis deer and wild boar are also native here.

Other mammals in Sri Lanka are macaques (a type of monkey), leaf monkeys, bears, water buffalo, mongoose, crawling cats or palm squirrels.

In addition, the visitor's eye is drawn to the numerous feral dogs, which one has to be on the lookout for as they can be carriers of numerous diseases.

Whales

General information

Whales are mammals that do not have gills but are lung breathers.

Therefore, at some point you have to get to the surface of the water to breathe air.

It is unfortunate that a number of states are still hunting these wonderful water giants.

But since they live in water, a separate chapter was devoted to them.

Blue

whales Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) belong to the subordination of the baleen whales and can be over 30 m long, with a weight of over 200 tons. This whale is the largest animal in the world.

The animal feeds on plankton, which it filters out of the sea water with the help of its whiskers. It reaches depths of approx. 100 m.

After mating, after a gestation period of about eleven months, the young are born with a length of about 7m. It is then suckled for six to seven months.

A female blue whale is pregnant about every two years.

Blue whales are found in practically all oceans, but depending on the season they change their territories, for example in winter they migrate to more tropical or subtropical regions.

Humpback whales

The humpback whales () belong to the bearded whales and reach an average length of approx. 14 m - with a weight of 25 to 30 tons.

Their diet consists mainly of krill, but to a lesser extent also of fish, but they only eat food in their summer quarters, in winter they live on their fat reserves. They find their food in water depths of up to 50 m

The humpback whale occurs in all oceans. But depending on the season, they change their territories, for example in winter they migrate to more tropical or subtropical regions. It should be noted that the animals of the Indian Ocean do not migrate north, but sometimes remain in the area of the tropical sea areas in summer, but sometimes also migrate to the Southern Ocean.

Sperm whales

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) occurs in practically all oceans. They are even found in the Azores, off Portugal and in the Mediterranean - for example in the area of the Greek coast at the Hellenic Trench.

It belongs to the order of the whales (Cetacea) and to the subordination of the toothed whales (Odontoceti). The further subdivision is the family of the sperm whales (Physeteridae) the genus Physeter.

The animals can reach a length of around 20 m - with a weight of around 50 tons, but the females are around 12 m in length.

The females (cows) live with their young in groups of fifteen to twenty animals. During the breeding season, the males (bulls) come back to the group of females.

The gestation period of the cows is assumed to be up to 17 months. After birth, the young weigh around 1,000 kg and are between four and five and a half meters tall. They are suckled by the mother for one to two years.

The diet of sperm whales consists mainly of squid. In addition to octopus, they also feed on fish from time to time - such as cod, tuna or monkfish.

When searching for food, they reach depths of more than 1,000 m. Due to food residues in the digestive tract of the animals, they even seem to dive up to 3,000 m deep.

You can stay underwater for up to 80 minutes.

The only enemy of adult whales is humans, who still hunt them, but are repeatedly hindered by animal rights activists

Minke

Sperm Whales Minke Sperm Whales (Kogia breviceps) reach a length of about 3m and a weight of up to 400 kilograms.

They belong to the order whales (Cetacea), to the suborder Toothed whales (Odontoceti) and to the family Kogiidae.

They are slightly larger than the small sperm whales with which together they form the genus Kogia.

They are found living alone but also in groups of up to six animals in the oceans of the tropics and temperate zones.

Their diet consists mainly of squid and crustaceans, which they prey at depths of up to 1,200 meters.

After a gestation period of around 11 months, they give birth to their young and then breastfeed them for at least a year

Fortunately, they have never been hunted on a large scale. But marine pollution and the risk of getting caught in fishing nets are a major threat to animals. Dead animals are repeatedly found

in the gill nets off the coast of Sri Lanka.

In addition, whales are repeatedly killed by ships in the strait between Sri Lanka and India.

!! Whale Watching !!

To do this, you start on the south coast of the island in the small town of Mirissa at the local "Whale Watching Center".

The whale watching tour usually starts in the early morning. A pleasant side effect is that you can also see dolphins

Reptiles

Saltwater crocodile

The saltwater crocodile (crocodylus porosus) is also known as the saltwater crocodile, although the animal can also be found in freshwater.

The animals are the largest living species of crocodile, ahead of the Nile crocodile. They can reach lengths of up to 5 m, with the females being significantly smaller at around 3 m.

They feed primarily on fish, water turtles, as well as mammals and birds.

They have the largest range of all crocodiles, which extends from the East Indies through Southeast Asia to Northern Australia including the oceanic islands.

The animals were found on the Palau Islands, the Cocos Islands, the New Hebrides and Fiji.

Marsh crocodile

The marsh crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) reaches a maximum length of about 4 m. The adult animals are gray to gray-brown - mostly with dark markings.

In addition to Sri Lanka, the animals can be found on the Indian subcontinent, in eastern Iran, in a large part of Pakistan and on the Terai plateau in Nepal.

The swamp crocodile is a freshwater resident found mainly in rivers, lakes and swamps. Marsh crocodiles feed on fish, frogs and water turtles, while large specimens also catch deer, gaure and water buffalo.

With the exception of Sri Lanka, the animals are now seriously threatened, for example in Bangladesh they have been completely exterminated.

Tiger python

The local Tiger Python (Python molurus) is also known as the Indian Mountain Python. It also occurs in western India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Vietnam and parts of Thailand.

A detailed description of the dark tiger python (Python bivittatus) can be found at Goruma here >>>

Geckos

Geckos can be found in the temperate zones as well as in the deserts, but especially in the tropics. The geckos are lizards and, depending on the area of distribution, reach sizes between 1.5 cm and approx. 40 cm.

The gecko family (Gekkonidae) includes around 55 different genera with more than 1,000 species. About three quarters of the animals are crepuscular or nocturnal.

Because of the hair on their feet, they can run up vertical walls and even run along the ceilings.

Their diet consists mainly of insects.

For example, the following species can be found in Sri Lanka:

- Sri Lankan house gecko

- Asian house gecko

- Virgin

gecko

- House gecko - Fringe-tailed house gecko.

Tortoises

Indian star tortoise

The Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans) is considered by many to be the most beautiful tortoise species. Its yellow, radial drawing on the black background of its tank is striking.

The animal reaches a size of about 40 cm and can weigh up to 8 kg. They can be found from Pakistan across the central area and the south of India to Sri Lanka.

In Sri Lanka, the animals live in sand dunes, bush forests or overgrown parks.

Their diet consists mainly of grass, fallen fruit and even flowers.

To reproduce, the females lay between five and nine eggs, which - depending on the season and temperature - hatch after 90 to 150 days.

Black-bellied terrapin

The Parker's black-bellied terrapin (Melanochelys trijuga parkeri) is a subspecies of the Indian black-bellied turtle (Melanochelys trijuga). There are six subspecies in total. From the genus Melanochelys there is also the three-keeled terrapin (Melanochelys tricarinata)

The animals live in and around water or in swamps.

Their size varies between 35 to 45 cm. The animal is uniformly brown to dark brown and black with yellow stripes on its underside. These turtles are active mornings and evenings and spend the rest of the day basking in the sun.

Their food ranges from aquatic plants and aquatic insects to the carcasses of dead animals.

For reproduction, the female lays up to 6 eggs, which hatch after 60 to 65 days.

The eggs are laid in nests in the ground or in wells dug in dried elephant dung.

Sea turtles

General

There are five species of sea turtles in Sri Lanka - namely the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), the leather turtle (Dermochelys coriacea),

the olive ridged turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) and the loggerhead turtle..

In order to reproduce, the animals dig a hole up to 40 cm deep in order to lay up to 250 eggs each. The eggs are hatched in the warm sand for about 48 days.

It is noteworthy that the temperature of the sand determines the sex of the animals. At temperatures above 29.9 C, females develop - and below that, males. When hatching, the animals are about 6 cm tall.

Overall, only 1-3 out of 1,000 eggs reach adulthood. Most of the rest become victims of humans, birds and fish before or on the way to the sea.

Leatherback turtle

The leatherback turtle is presented here as an example. With a shell size of about 2.50 m and a weight of up to 700 kg, the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest turtle in Sri Lanka.

This turtle belongs to the Dermochelyidae family and to the genus Dermochelys. The animals are ocean dwellers and live in all tropical and subtropical seas.

In summer they can also be found in the temperate zones. The animals can dive up to 1,200 m deep.

Their skin food is jellyfish. Their reproduction was shown under general.

!! Note !!

In the southwest of Sri Lanka is the fishing village of Kosgoda and here the oldest turtle farm on the island - it's the Victor Hasselblad Turtle Hatchery, which was created in 1979.

Since the station was founded, locals, foreign guest scientists and volunteers have been committed to the preservation and protection of the sea turtle species that live in the local sea.

Sea Turtle Research Center

K. Chandrasiri Abrew

Galle Road 72/4

Nape/Kosgoda

Tel.: 0094 - (0) 777 - 810 509 0094 - (0) 777 - 810 509

Monitor lizards

General overview

Monitor lizards (Varanus) belong to the genus of the scalloped reptiles (Squamata) and to the sub-order of the sneaky (Anguimorpha). In total there are around 80 different species with numerous subspecies. They are found in the tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia and Australia. The smallest species are only around 20 cm and the largest up to 3 m.

A peculiarity of the animals is their long tongue, split at the tip, which helps to perceive smell when tipping the tongue.

All monitor lizards are diurnal and, depending on the species or subspecies, live on the ground, on trees or even in water.

With the exception of three species in the Philippineswho also eat fruit, all monitor lizards are carnivores, and their diet consists of insects, invertebrates and vertebrates.

Some species also have carrion on the menu.

The following two species are native to Sri Lanka:

Bengal monitor

The Bengal monitor (Varanus bengalensis) is divided into two subspecies. Both subspecies reach a total length of about 1.5 meters, with the females being slightly smaller. The main diet consists of small invertebrates such as insects, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, crustaceans and snails. But neither does he disdain vertebrates such as fish, frogs or lizards. The Bengal monitor is a loner mostly lives on the ground, but it can also climb and swim.

The two subspecies are found in southeastern Iran, large parts of Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, southern China, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Sumatra as well as Java.

The subspecies Varanus bengalensis bengalensis lives more in the eastern while the Varanus bengalensis nebulosus rather in the western parts of the distribution area.

Bindenwaran

The Bindenwaran (Varanus salvator) is divided into five subspecies and reaches lengths up to more than 2 m, whereby the males are heavier than the females.

This type of monitor lizard can be found in the northeastern part of India, in Bangladesh and Burma as well as on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

They are also found in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in southern China and Malaysia.

The white monitor monitor can also be found in Singapore, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, the Lesser Sunda Islands on Sulawesi and the Obi Islands.

The animals mainly inhabit the rivers in rainforests and mangrove forests.

Their diet ranges from insects to fish and reptiles to small mammals and birds.

Poisonous animals - without poisonous snakes

Black scorpions

The black scorpions are found all over the country. Especially when it rains after a long period of drought, they come out of the caves because they then fill with water. They then look for a dry place that they can find in a shoe or a backpack. Scorpion stings are usually not life-threatening for adults and the severe symptoms subside after a few hours, in exceptional cases only after one or two days. With small children, however, there is a risk of death. The local scorpions only sting when they feel threatened, whereas most people are stung when they step on a scorpion, for example when it has hidden itself in a shoe or sleeping bag.

Carudas

These centipedes with their 35 to 50 pairs of legs are between 10 cm and 25 cm in length, some species are even longer. Their skin color is reddish brown.

The nocturnal, almost blind animals are pure carnivores. Even touching the animal leads to painful burns.

They can also use their jaw forceps to inject a poison that decomposes the cells through a bite.

This is usually not life-threatening, but it does lead to a strong swelling of the wider area around the bite site and to very painful and also poorly healing wounds.

Poisonous snakes

General Notes

There are around 85 land snakes in Sri Lanka, a number of which are very venomous.

In 2015 around 32,000 people were bitten by snakes, 200 of whom died as a result of the bite.

However, the number of those bitten is likely to be a lot higher since not all of them go to a doctor or a hospital. The most dangerous snakes are:

Spectacle snake (well well)

This snake belongs to the real cobras.

In Sri Lanka, the animal is considered sacred.

A detailed description of the snake can be found at Goruma here >>>

Kraits (Bungarus)

There are two types of kraits on the island, namely the Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) and the Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) - which is also known as the common krait.

Kraits venom is an extremely potent neurotoxin, and a bite is almost always fatal without intensive treatment with an antiserum.

This nocturnal snake tends to settle in beds, sleeping bags, tents, etc. during the day. to rest and react very aggressively when disturbed.

At night, when hunting, it often ends up in the (straw) huts of locals or tourists.

Ceylon lance

viper The Ceylon lance viper (Trieresurus trigonocephala) occurs only in Sri Lanka.

It reaches a maximum length of 1.30 m.

Their color ranges from light green to light blue to dark blue. The black temple band which runs from the eye to the rear corner of the mouth is typical. The pattern on the back consists of paired semi-circles up to a closed black circle.

The snake is both diurnal and nocturnal. Due to its pronounced prehensile tail, it can climb excellently.

Their habitat are the warm and humid forests, as well as the bushes and tea plantations. They can be found at altitudes over 2,000 m.

Their diet consists mainly of lizards (geckos), frogs, birds and mice.

Chain viper (Russel's Viper)

This viper (Daboia russelli pulchella) is a subspecies of the (Daboia russelli)

The snake reaches a length of 1.00 m to 1.50 m. It is responsible for more deaths than any other venomous snake combined. When she feels threatened, she curls up, hisses, and whips like a whip at the troublemaker.

The range is up to 3 m, so that the attacked person hardly has a chance to escape.

A detailed description of this snake can be found at Goruma here >>>

Asian sand rattle otter (Saw-Scaled Viper)

Despite its small size of 0.45 m to 0.60 m, the Asian sand rattle otter (Echis carinatus) is very dangerous. The snake got its name because of the raspy sound it makes when it curls up and rubs the scales together. The animal is considered to be very aggressive and attacks everyone who comes into their territory. Since this snake can jump several meters, it is particularly dangerous. The animal lives mainly in rural and dry surroundings as well as between rocks.

A detailed description of this snake can be found at Goruma here >>>

Sea snakes

All sea snakes inject more venom than is necessary, as there is a risk of the venom being washed out in the sea water.

The poison of a sea snake usually leads to death within a short time if left untreated.

Fortunately, most sea snakes are not aggressive and only bite when they are attacked or when they feel threatened.

Fishers who have brought a sea snake onto board in their nets are often affected by sea snake bites.

It is worth mentioning that some sea snakes are very curious and can therefore get threateningly close to swimmers. Then reacting with defensive movements would encourage the animals to bite.

Sea snakes are found on all coasts of Sri Lanka. In alphabetical order they are:

- Bombay sea snake (Hydrophis mamillaris)

- Collared sea snake (Hydrophis stricticollis)

- Yellow sea snake (Hydrophis spiralis)

- Common sea snake (Hydrophis inornatus)

- Yellow-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis plarutus) - also known as the platelet sea snake.

- Hartwick sea snake (Hydrophis hardwickii)

- Cone-nosed sea snake (Hydrophis jerdonii)

- Adder flattail - also known as yellow-lipped sea snake (Laticauda colubrina).

- Ornate reef sea snake (Hydrophis ornatus)

- Persian Gulf sea snake (Hydrophis lapemoides)

- Russel's sea snake (Hydrophis obscurus)

- Black banded sea snake (Hydrophis nigrocinctus)

- Shaw sea snake (Hydrophis curtus)

- Striped rowing

snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) - Viper sea snake (Hydrophis viperinus)

Birds

In the species-rich bird world of Sri Lanka with around 430 bird species, including 21 endemic species, herons and huge flocks of cormorants stand out. Parrots and numerous corvids also populate the island.

The following birds can also be found here, for example:

eagles, buzzards, falcons, warblers, orioles, quails, chickens, ducks, geese, quails,

woodpeckers, bearded birds, eagle owls, owls, plovers, lapwing, warbler, swallows and gulls.

fishes

Seawater

fish A large number of different fish species live in the waters around Sri Lanka. A selection:

- Reef sharks (white tip and black tip reef sharks)

- bull sharks

- tiger sharks

- hammerheads

- whale sharks

There are also dolphins and porpoises in the waters.

You can also find perch, triggerfish, wrasse, mackerel, moray eels, parrot fish, sardines, stone fish, octopus and tuna in the sea.

Freshwater fish

Many of the fish that live here in the rivers and lakes are almost unknown to us.

The following fish are worth mentioning:

perch, barbel, carp, the freshwater moray eel and catfish.

Sri Lanka: plants

General

A large number of endemic - only occurring here - plant species grow in Sri Lanka, making Sri Lanka one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in Asia.

Precipitation is highest in the west of the country, which has resulted in tropical rainforests and mountain forests.

On the other hand, in the north and east of the island with little precipitation there is a xerophytic (= adapted to water scarcity) bush vegetation.

In addition to the endemic plants, there are also numerous plants from the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Malaysia.

Since it is impossible to show all plants here, a selection - certainly subjective - had to be made.

Note

It should be noted that for a number of plants no German name is known and is therefore only mentioned for species identification.

trees and shrubs

Aglaia roxburghiana

This plant belongs to the plant genus Aglaia and the family of mahogany trees (Meliaceae), of which there are around 50 genera.

There are around 390 species of the genus Aglaia, one of which is Aglaia roxburghiana, which grows in Sri Lanka. The leaves of the tree are used as a traditional remedy for a number of diseases.

Acacia

The acacia (Acacia) are a kind of the subfamily Mimosagewächse (Mimosoideae) There are about 1,400 kinds of this kind, which occur in Europe, America and from the subtropics up to the tropics. Around 950 of them grow in Australia.

They occur as trees or tall bushes up to 10 m high.

In Sri Lanka they belong to the evergreen plants.

Albizzia chinensis

This deciduous tree over 20 m high belongs to the Mimosaceae family and to the genus Albizzia. The yellowish-white flowers grow in clusters on the leaf axes or at the end of the branches.

The plant's generic name was named after the Italian nobleman Filippo degli Albizzi, who belonged to the Florentine Albizzi family and who brought the plant to Europe around the middle of the 18th century.

The up to 8 m high silk tree (Albizia julibrissin) belongs to the genus Albizzia.

Bodhi tree

The bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa) - a poplar fig is particularly worth mentioning. Buddha Sakyamuni achieved his enlightenment under a bodhi tree.

The daughter of Emperor Asoka, Sanghamitta, who later became a nun, had brought an offshoot of the tree to Sri Lanka, where it still grows in the ancient city of Anaradapura.

Branches of the tree can be found in every Buddhist temple on the island.

Ceylon Tea Tree (Ceylon Tea)

This tree of the plant species (Elaeodendron glaucum) from the genus Elaeodendron and the family Celastraceae becomes 18 to 20 m high. It grows wild, but is also used as a cultivated plant to beautify parks and gardens. It is also used medicinally. However, despite its name, it is not used to make tea

. Besides Sri Lanka, it also grows in Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Cambodia and Nepal.

Drypetes sepiaria

Drypetes sepiaria is a smaller tree in the genus Drypetes and the family Putranjivaceae.

Light red edible fruits grow on the tree. In addition, its wood is often used for fences and as firewood.

Ebony

trees The ebony trees (Diospyros) also known as persimmons occur in different species both as trees and as bushes,

- Ceylon ebony tree (Diospyros ebenum)

The Ceylon ebony tree is an evergreen tree between 20-25 m high that used to be (today hardly any more) was used for furniture construction and has the best quality of all ebony wood, it was or is easy to work, weather and termite resistant.

- Persimmon tree (Diospyros kaki)

The persimmon tree grows up to 10 m high. The persimmon plum grows on it, a sweet, orange-colored fruit that looks like a large tomato. It grows

up to 10 m high

Elephant

apple tree The elephant apple tree (Limonia acidissima), also known as the Indian crab apple tree, grows on the arid plains of Sri Lanka. It belongs to the genus Limonia and to the family of the diamond plants (Rutaceae).

It is deciduous with heights of about 9 m. The fruits of the tree are used as fruit.

Ironwood Tree

The evergreen ironwood tree was named the national tree of Sri Lankas in February 1986. The tree owes its name to the fact that its wood is extremely hard.

It reaches a height of up to 13 m, whereby the trunk reaches a diameter of up to 90 cm. The scent of its 7 to 8 cm white flowers is downright bewitching.

Falcataria moluccana

Falcataria moluccana is the only species in the genus Falcataria. The tree also belongs to the subfamily of the mimosa family (Mimosoideae) and the legume family (Fabaceae).

With its growth rate of 10 m in 12 months, the tree is considered to be the fastest growing tree in the world.

It is a deciduous tree that can reach heights of up to 40 m - with a diameter of the trunk of more than 100 cm, which usually only branches from a height of approx. 20 m.

The tree forms a wide and flat treetop and a large, umbrella-shaped canopy.

Fish

poison tree The fish poison tree or putat tree (Barringtonia asiatica) can reach a height of up to 25 m. Its habitat is mainly near mangrove forests and on the coasts.

The oval-shaped leaves up to 15 cm long are striking. The blossoms of the tree are located on a long stem and unfold their beauty during the dark and often fall to the ground afterwards, where they develop a bewitching scent.

The substance saponin, which is particularly found in the seeds of the plant, is often used for fishing - hence the name of the tree. To do this, the powdered seeds are sprinkled into the water, where they have an anesthetic or toxic effect on the fish.

Saponins are glycosides of steroids or steroid alkaloids.

Flea tree

The flea tree (Albizia lebbeck) is a species from the genus Albizia, which also includes the silk tree.

The tree reaches a height between 18 to 30 m - with a diameter of the trunk of 50 cm to 1 m.

Diplodiscus verrucosus

This type of plant from the genus Diplodiscus and the family Malvaceae is only found in Sri Lanka.

There are a total of 10 species of the genus Diplodiscus.

They come as very densely leafy and evergreen smaller trees or shrubs.

Haldina, Kadam

Haldina cordifolia also known as Adina cordifolia is a more than 20 m high deciduous tree from the Rubiaceae family and the Haldina genus.

The yellow-pink colored flowers are worth seeing when they bloom in balls with a circumference of 2 to 3 cm. The bark of the tree has an antiseptic and antipyretic effect.

Indian elm plant

The Indian elm plant (Holoptelea integrifolia) is a deciduous tree that belongs to the genus Holoptelea and to the family Ulmaceae.

Besides India and China it is also found in Sri Lanka. The plant is a fast growing tree that reaches heights of 20 to 30 m.

It is used as industrial firewood.

Casuarinas

The casuarinas (Casuarina) belong to the order of the beech-like (Fagales) and to the family of the casuarina plants (Casuarinaceae).

The genus Casuarina includes six species.

They originally come from Australia and its northern islands.

In Sri Lanka you can find these evergreen trees mainly on the coast because they are relatively insensitive to salt. Depending on the species, they can reach heights of over 20 m.

Their thin and green-colored branches with a length of more than 10 cm and their strongly receding leaves have a certain resemblance to conifers.

Manilkara hexandra

Manilkara hexandra belongs to the genus Manilkara and the family Sapotaceae.

The tree is a slow-growing and evergreen tree that reaches heights between 40 and 80 m - with a circumference of up to about 3 m. The bark is gray-black and rough. The wood is hard, heavy and very durable with a weight of around 1,056 kg per m³.

Its dark pink to dark purple wood is used for goal posts and large beams.

In Sinhala, the tree is called Palu, Palai or Rayan.

Peacock chaste tree

The Peacock chaste tree (Vitex altissima) is an evergreen tree that can reach a height of 30 m and has a dense treetop.

It belongs to the genus Vitex and to the mint family (Lamiacae).

Its leaves and roots are used in Ayuvedic medicine.

Besides Sri Lanka, it occurs in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar and Papua New Guinea.

Polyalthia korinti

The plant species Polyalthia korinti belongs to the genus Polyalthia and to the family Annonaceae. This evergreen tree reaches heights of up to around 5 m

Red cassia

The red cassia (Cassia roxburghii) belongs to the genus Cassia (Cassia), the subfamily of the carob family (Caesalpinioideae) and the legume family (Fabaceae).

Plants are shrubs or trees that reach a height of 15 to 20 m.

The flowers stand together in terminal racemose inflorescences and make the tree appear in a splendid pink or rose color during flowering.

Their fruits are legumes.

The plant was named after the Scottish biologist William Roxburgh (1751-1815).

Strobilanthes stenoden

Strobilanthes stenoden belongs to the genus Strobilanthes and to the family Mavaceae. The evergreen tree reaches heights of over 10 m.

The leaves of the plant are green-blue to purple and the flowers are white. You can find the tree in the Wasgamuwa National Park.

Tamarind trees

The tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica), also called Indian date or sour date, is the only species from the genus Tamarindus.

The tamarind tree grows as an evergreen tree that reaches heights of 6 to 25 m.

Toothbrush tree

The toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica), also known as the arrak tree, grows on sandy, dry or salty soils.

Salvadora persica is an evergreen, fast-growing shrub or small tree that reaches heights between 2.5 to 6 m. The plant got its name because its buds, roots and branches are traditionally used for dental care.

Lemon wood tree (Ceylon satinwood)

The lemon wood tree (Chloroxylon swietenia) is a hardwood tree from the genus Chloroxylon, the subfamily Flindersioideae and the family Rutaceae. The tree reaches a height of 15 to 20 m.

The wood often has a golden sheen and is often used as a veneer for wooden furniture.

Cultivated or useful plants

Bananas

The bananas (Musa) are a genus of plants from the banana family (Musaceae) of which there are around 70 species, 30 of which are also found in Sri Lanka.

After about twenty weeks, red flowers form on the up to 5 m high banana plants, from which the bananas develop.

The dessert banana (Musa paradisiaca) is well known. However, the most economically important banana variety bred from 1953 onwards is the Cavendish variety, which was named after William Cavendish, the sixth Duke of Devonshire.

Berrya cordifolia

This tree (Berrya cordifolia) belongs to the genus Berrya and to the family Malvaceae. The evergreen deciduous tree grows up to 27 m high. It is used as construction timber, for furniture and for shipbuilding.

Cashew nut

tree The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the genus Anacardium and the sumac family (Anacardiaceae). The evergreen tree reaches heights between 10 to 12 m with a trunk diameter of 1.50 m and approx. 30 cm.

He delivers the cashew apples and cashew nuts. The cashew fruit is small and greenish to brownish in color and hangs down on a 5-10 cm long, fleshy, thickened fruit stalk, which is known as the cashew apple.

In the cashew fruit are the kernels that are sold as cashew nuts or cashew nuts. The nutshell contains an oil called Cardol, which causes severe burns on the mucous membrane and is very irritating to the skin.

The cardol is deactivated by the roasting or heating process. The kernels are offered raw, roasted and salted, seasoned or caramelized.

Cinchona trees The cinchona trees (Cinchona) belong to the red family (Rubiaceae). There are around 23 different species of the genus Cinchona, some of which are grown in tropical areas for the production of quinine.

Quinine is used as a therapeutic agent against malaria - especially against its most severe form, malaria tropica.

Quinine is also added to drinks such as bitter lemon or tonic water. The maximum amount permitted in Germany is 85 mg/kg in non-alcoholic beverages and 300 mg / kg in alcoholic beverages - for example in bitters.

Real figs

The real fig (Ficus carica) is a species of figs (Ficus) and belongs to the mulberry family (Moraceae). The fig is a shrub or small tree 3 to 10 m high that sheds its leaves. The trunk is usually gnarled, twisted or curved. The bark is smooth and light gray. It is one of the oldest cultivated useful plants in the world.

After pollination, the inflorescence develops into the familiar fig in three to five months. Their shape is spherical to pear-shaped. The color is - depending on the variety considered - green to dark purple.

However, figs play a rather subordinate role in Sri Lanka - the main growing areas are mainly in the Mediterranean region.

Guavas

The guavas (Psidium) are a genus of plants from the myrtle family (Myrtaceae) of which there are a number of species. The Psidium species are evergreen shrubs or small trees with a gray and smooth bark.

The spherical to pear-shaped and fleshy berries contain many seeds. In Sri Lanka, guavas are eaten with salt and lots of chilli.

Indian Elm

The Indian helmet (Holoptelea integrifolia) is a deciduous tree that can grow up to 18 m high. It belongs to the genus Holoptelea and to the family Ulmaceae. The tree is also known as Ulmus integrifolia.

The tree has a wide range of uses in medicine; the seeds and the paste obtained from the bark are used to fight ringworm - a fungal infection.

The bark and leaves are also used against rheumatism, edema, diabetes, leprosy and other skin diseases. And it should even help against gluten intolerance.

Indigo plant

The indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria) is a shrub from the genus Indigofera and the legume family (Fabaceae).

Its main purpose is to obtain the valuable dye indigo, which is a deep blue on the border with violet.

Coffee plants

The coffee plants (Coffea) belong to the genus Coffea in the Rubiaceae family and include 124 known species.

The most famous among them are Arabica coffee plants (Coffea arabica) and Robusta coffee plants (Coffea canephora). The coffee plants are evergreen small trees or shrubs.

Rubber tree

The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) belongs to the milkweed family (Euphorbiaceae).

The rubber tree originally comes from the Amazon basin in Brazil. As an important natural supplier of the rubber milk (natural rubber), which is used to manufacture rubber, it began its triumphal march in the tropical regions of the world.

In Sri Lanka, the rubber trees grow on large plantations and reach a height of between 30 and 40 m. The trunk is relatively slim with its diameter of up to 35 centimeters. At the age of 5 to 6, they can be tapped for five to six years, whereby the bark is cut open in a spiral with a special knife and the rubber milk is obtained in a collecting container attached to the tree. When they are over 25 years old, they no longer give off any milk and are then felled for wood production.

It is worth mentioning that a local research institute deals almost exclusively with the product obtained from the tree.

Coconut palms

The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a palm tree on which coconuts grow. It belongs to the genus Cocus.

The trees are unbranched and reach heights between 20 and 25 m - rarely higher.

The coconuts have an extremely hard brown shell and underneath a firm, tasty white flesh. It also contains coconut milk.

Lychee tree

The lychee tree (Litchi chinensis) is the only species of the plant genus Litchi and belongs to the soap tree family (Sapindaceae).

The lychee tree is an evergreen tree with heights of 10 m - rarely 15 m.

The fruits of the tree are called lychee, litch or lychee.

They are a very tasty fruit and are very popular in Germany.

Mango tree

The mango tree (Mangifera indica) belongs to the genus of the mangoes (Mangifera) and to the sumac family (Anacardiaceae).

The evergreen mango tree with its dark green leaves can in rare cases grow up to 40 m high and have a treetop with a diameter of up to 30 m.

Many small, white to pink flowers stand together in upright inflorescences. When they are open they smell of lilies.

After the flowers wilt, it takes about 3 to 5 months for the fruits to be ripe.

The ripe mango fruit hangs on long stalks and weighs up to 2 kg.

The fruit has a thin and smooth skin and underneath it a soft, yellowish, deliciously tasting flesh with a large and flattened core.

Mangostin tree

The mangostin tree (Garcinia mangostana) is a type of plant from the genus Garcinia and the family Clusiaceae. The tree is also known as the mangosteen tree, both names coming from Malay.

It is an evergreen tree that reaches heights between 8 and 25 m. The mangosteen tree grows relatively slowly and can reach an age well over 100 years.

Mangostines, the tasty fruit of the tree, are offered on the island during the summer months.

The mangosteen contain a high concentration of antioxidants and 12 vitamins.

Maracuja

Maracuja (Passiflora flavicarpa) belongs to the genus of passion flowers (Passiflora) and to the family of passion flower plants (Passifloraceae).

The plant is a strong liana that can reach a length of up to 80 m. The evergreen leaves are between 7 and 20 cm in size and have a glossy, dark green upper surface.

Maracuja is often confused with passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) or even equated with it. The passion fruit is about twice as big as the passion fruit.

The skin of the passion fruit is light green to yellowish, depending on the degree of ripeness.

The taste of passion fruit is rather sour, which makes it a popular ingredient in juices. The fruit is also often used in desserts as an addition to very sweet dishes.

Papaya

Papaya (Carica papaya), also known as the melon tree, is the only species from the genus Carica and belongs to the melon tree family (Caricaceae).

The papaya is a mostly unbranched tree-like plant with heights between 5 to 10 m. Because of the lack of lignification and its shape, the papaya is neither a tree nor a shrub. Some biologists refer to them as tree-like herbaceous plants.

Their fruits are considered more of a vegetable than a fruit and are often served as a salad.

Papayas have an oval, sometimes pear-like shape. Green fruits are not yet ripe, they are only when the skin has turned yellow. Then the soft flesh inside is light orange, pink to cherry red.

Rice plant

rice, the grains of the species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. Only the species Oryza sativa grows in Sri Lanka, while the species Oryza glaberrima is native to Africa.

The rice plant Oryza sativa can develop up to 30 stalks and be between 50 and 160 cm high. Rice is grown in water-rich plantations and is the main food source on the island

T eepplanzen

The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is a species of the genus Camellia (Camellia) within the tea shrub family (Theaceae).

Real tea is made from parts of the plants. The Camellia sinensis varieties grow as evergreen shrubs or small trees with heights of 1 to 5 m - rarely up to 8 m.

Lemon tree

The lemon tree (Citrus limon) is a species of the citrus plant (Citrus).

The genus Citrus consists of evergreen trees or large shrubs. They reach heights of 5 to 25 m.

The approximately fist-sized yellow fruits of the lemon tree are widely known as lemons

Sugar cane Sugar

cane (Saccharum officinarum) belongs to the sweet grass family (Poaceae) and to the subfamily Panicoideae with about 3,270 other species.

Sugar cane is one of the most important raw material suppliers for the production of household sugar (sucrose) and increasingly also for the production of bioethanol.

Their stalks reach a height of 3 to 6 m - with a diameter of 2 to 4 cm.

Spices, aromatic plants

Sri Lanka has long been known for its numerous and sometimes valuable spices. They were a lucrative source of income for the British colonial rulers at the time and are still an important export item today

Ceylon cinnamon

Ceylon cinnamon is low in coumarin and therefore more digestible than other types of cinnamon.

It is grown in cinnamon gardens especially in the southwest of the island.

To do this, the bark of young perennials is peeled about twice a year, then rolled up and dried. Cinnamon oil is also extracted from the leaves.

We particularly know cinnamon as rice pudding with cinnamon and sugar.

Chili

In Sri Lanka, numerous dishes are seasoned with chili. There are relatively mild and extremely hot chilli. The chilli, known as "Nai Miris" in Sinhala, is extremely hot and can lead to considerable health problems.

Green or red whole pods or chili powder are used.

Turmeric

The turmeric a ca.0,5 m high bush is made from the tuber. To do this, the tuber is washed off well, boiled and then dried in the sun.

Turmeric is mostly used to color food or monks' robes.

Cloves

The cloves are buds of a tree that grow in clusters and are harvested when closed and then dried. In Europe, cloves are mostly used to flavor gingerbread or punch.

In Sri Lanka, it is more used to season sauces, meat or fish dishes.

Ginger

The bulbous roots of the herbaceous plant are peeled and dried.

In Europe, ginger is prepared as a tea or.

Cardamom

These fruit capsules grow on an approx. 3 m high bush; the seeds inside are used.

Black tea is often served with cardamom (and ginger) in Sri Lanka. A seed pod, chewed up when nausea or bloating occurs, brings relief.

Coriander

Coriander consists of small yellow-brown grains that are used to season meat and sausages,

Nutmegs

The nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) belongs to the genus Myristika and to the nutmeg family (Myristicaceae). Its seeds, the nutmeg and its coat, mace, are used as spices.

However, nutmeg trees can only be harvested from the age of 15.

The nutmeg is grated with the help of a small grater and used to season potato dishes, soups and stews and often also in meat dishes such as meatballs and roast pork.

It is also suitable as a spice for cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, spinach, kohlrabi, red cabbage, peas or carrots.

The pulp is also used to cook nutmeg jelly and nutmeg syrup, which is eaten with pancakes or used for cocktails. Nutmeg oil also plays an important role in the food industry.

Note

It should be noted that the nutmegs are attacked by mold, some of which produce the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins.

This does not play a major role in the nuts exported to Europe, which are subject to strict controls, but can be problematic on site.

Pepper

Pepper also grows wild in Sri Lanka and grows around trees and poles.

- Green pepper is harvested immature and then placed in a vinegar solution.

- Black pepper are the almost ripe and dried kernels

- White pepper is black pepper without its shell

Vanilla

Vanilla is obtained from the pods of different species of the orchid genus Vanilla.

The genus Vanilla comprises around 110 different species, 15 of which have aromatic capsules that can be used as vanilla pods.

The spiced vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is the most important type for the production of vanilla pods.

The pods are harvested just before ripening and during the subsequent fermentation, the milky liquid turns into the strongly scented mass known as vanilla.

The best-known uses are certainly puddings and creams, as well as vanilla milk and vanilla ice cream. But it is also used in cosmetics.

Other plants

Dendrobium

Of the genus Dendrobium, which belongs to the orchid family (Orchidaceae), there are around 1,200 species worldwide. Several species of this genus grow in Sri Lanka.

Many Dendrobium species grow epiphytically (= growing on other plants) on trees. Some species also grow on rocky ground.

Efeutute

The Efeutute (pipremnum pinnatum) can be found in Sri Lanka in the wild. However, it did not originally appear here, but was brought to the island as an ornamental plant. With the help of its aerial roots, the Efeutute climbs trees up to a height of 20 m.

They can reach a maximum length of 1 m and a maximum width of about 45 cm. In Germany it is kept as a houseplant

Frangipani

The Frangipani (Plumeria obtusa) grows as a tree or bush and can reach a height of about 4.5 m. The elliptically shaped leaves of the plant can be more than 10 cm long. A

special feature are the white-yellow flowers, which give off an intense, sweet and very pleasant scent. That is why the flowers are often displayed in Sri Lankan hotels as fragrant jewelry in the rooms of the guests.

Gold trumpet

The gold trumpet (Allamanda cathartica) belongs to the genus Allamanda, to the tribe Plumerieae, to the subfamily Rauvolfioideae and to the family of the dog poison plants (Apocynaceae).

The plant originally comes from the tropical regions of South America.

With the help of its branches it can climb up to 4.5 m high.

Their leaves are dark blue-green in color and have a glossy surface. Its bright yellow flowers, up to 15 cm long, are shaped like a trumpet - hence their name.

Large flamingo

flower The large flamingo flower (Anthurium andraeanum) belongs to the genus of flamingo flowers (Anthurium) and to the family of arum plants (Araceae).

With its beautiful red flowers, it is one of the popular houseplants in Germany and the most expensive anthurium flower in Sri Lanka.

J usticia betonica

The shrubs of the evergreen plant species Justicia betonica from the Acanthus family (Acanthaceae) and the genus Justicia reach heights of up to 1.50 m - with a width of between 60 to 90 cm.

The purple to mauve flowers of this plant are found in groups on the upright stems.

They attract hummingbirds and butterflies, while pollination is usually done by hummingbirds.

Pitcher plants

The pitcher plant (Nepenthes distillatoria) occurs only in Sri Lanka and here in the rainforests, where it climbs up the slopes. The basic color of the plant is green with some reddish areas.

It belongs to the carnivorous plants. For this purpose, can-like formations have formed at the tips of their leaves, the upper edges of which are very smooth and curved inward. These jugs reach a size of approx. 10 cm.

Insects that run along here therefore cannot find a hold and slide into the inside of the jug and into the liquid that is located here, with the help of which they are then digested.

Oleander

The oleander (Nerium oleander) is an evergreen plant that can reach a height of up to 5 m. The leaves 6 to 10 cm long are dark green.

The natural range of the plant extends from North Africa over southern Europe over the Middle East to India, Sri Lanka and China.

As an ornamental plant, the color of the flowers ranges from white to pink-red.

Orchids

The orchids (Orchidaceae) are a widespread family of plants. They are considered particularly beautiful.

The orchid family comprises around 1,000 genera with up to 30,000 species.

Pleurostylia opposita

Pleurostylia opposita is a species of plant in the genus Pleurostylia and the family Celastraceae.

In addition to Sri Lanka, this shrub is also found in Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

Splendid bougainvillea

The splendid bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis) belongs to the genus Bougainvillea and to the family of the wonder flower plants (Nyctaginaceae) and to the order of the carnation-like (Caryophyllales). The origins of the plant are in Brazil.

It was brought to Europe - probably first to Elba - by the French Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811).

The splendid bougainvillea forms shrubs that can reach a height of up to 12 m.

The plant genus can now be found in people's gardens in many countries, but in Sri Lanka it is also found in the wild.

Swamp iris

The swamp iris (Iris pseudacorus), also known as yellow iris or water iris, is a species of the iridaceae family.

The swamp iris grows as an herbaceous plant and can reach heights of 1 to 2 m. Its gray-green leaves are up to 90 cm long and 1 to 3 cm wide.

They are mainly found on the damp banks and in the silting zones of standing and flowing waters as well as in fens and swamp forests.

But it develops particularly well in 20 to 40 cm deep water.

Water hyacinths

The water hyacinths (Eichhornia) are a genus of plants from the family of the water hyacinth plants (Pontederiaceae).

The plant received its generic name in honor of the Prussian minister of culture Johann Albrecht Friedrich von Eichhorn (1779-1856).

The water hyacinths originally come from the tropics of South America.

In addition to their use as ornamental plants, they are used as a raw material for wickerwork and for making paper.

The plant is also used as a material for biogas plants or for the decontamination of waters that are polluted with heavy metals.

Water

goblets There are about 60 species of the genus water goblet (Cryptocoryne). They are aquatic and marsh plants. Some species are used as aquarium plants.

- Walker's water goblet (Cryptocoryne walkeri) is a small plant from the genus Cryptocoryne and the Araceae family.

The plant grows on the river banks of Sri Lanke and reaches a height of 10 to 25 cm. It is often used as an aquarium plant.

Water lilies

The water lily (Nymphaea alba), also known as the white water lily, is a species of the water lily family (Nymphaeaceae) and is a typical representative of floating leaf plants.

The pleasantly fragrant white flowers with a gold-colored center and a diameter of about 8 to 12 centimeters. The flowers close in the evening and when it rains.

Their pollen attracts all kinds of animals.

 

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