Sri Lanka: Political System
Sri Lanka is a democratic-socialist republic. The head of state and head of
government is the president, who is elected for 6 years. The parliament is a
unicameral system with 225 members.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
|Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
The national anthem of Sri Lanka
|In Sinhalese language
||In the English translation
|Sri Lanka Matha,
Apa Sri Lanka
Namo Namo Namo Namo Matha.
Sundara siri bharini,
Surandi athi sobhamana Lanka
Dhanya dhanaya neka mal pala thuru piri jaya bhoomiya ramya
Apa hata sapa siri setha sadhana,
Jee vanaye Matha!
Piliganu mana apa bhakti pooja,
Namo Namo Matha.
Apa Sri Lanka,
Namo Namo Namo Namo Matha.
Obave apa vidya,
Obamaya apa sathya.
Obave apa shakti,
Apa hada thula bhakti.
Oba apa aloke,
Oba apa jeevana ve,
Apa muktiya obave,
Nava jeevana demine,
Nithina apa pubudhu karan Matha.
Gnana veerya vadavamina ragena yanu,
Mana jaya bhoomi kara.
Eka mavekuge daru kala bavina,
Yamu yamu wee nopama,
Prema vadamu sama bheda durara da,
Namo Namo Matha.
apa sri lanka,
namu namu, namu, namu Matha!
|Sri Lanka, mother, we adore you!
Thrive and blossom in happiness,
you beautiful one, full of grace and love, rich
in grain and delicious fruits,
in fragrant, shining flowers,
you give us life and all our well-being,
happy and victorious country,
we praise you with gratitude,
Sri Lanka, We adore you
The national flag (national flag) of Sri Lanka was officially introduced on
December 17, 1978. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the golden lion against a wine-red background holds a sword in his right
front paw. In each of the four corners is the gold-colored leaf of a bodhi tree.
The lion symbolizes bravery and the four leaves represent the four Buddhist
states of metta (goodness), karuna (compassion), mudita (compassionate) and
The left part The flag consists of two green and saffron-colored stripes of
equal size, the saffron-colored stripes standing for the Tamil ethnic group and
the green for the Muslim residents of the island state. The wine-red
background stands for Sinhalese, the majority of the country’s residents. The
yellow frame symbolizes the unity of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka: Known People
Politicians and rulers
- Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (1916 - 2000)
She was the first female Prime Minister of Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, and the
first head of government worldwide.
Her first term lasted from 1960 to 1965. After losing the majority in the
elections in 1965, she then lost her office. But she won the elections in
1970 with a two-thirds majority. From 1970 to 1977 she served again as Prime
Minister and also as Foreign, Defense and Planning Minister. Under their
leadership, Ceylon received a new constitution in August 1972 and became a
republic - previously it belonged to the Commonwealth as Dominion. In
addition, the country was renamed "Sri Lanka".
- Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born 1945)
She emerged victorious from the parliamentary elections on August 16,
1994. The President Dingiri entrusted her with the formation of a government
and sworn in on August 19, 1994 as the new Prime Minister. In the
presidential elections that followed on November 9, 1994, she also ran for
election without victory. Then she was sworn in on November 13, 1994, female
head of state of her country. She stayed until 2005. She appointed her own
mother to be Prime Minister, who succeeded her in this office.
- Mahinda Rajapaksa (born 1945)
He was President of the country from 2015 to 2015.
- Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (1899-1959) Colombo
airport was named after this Prime Minister of the Ceylon at that time, who
served from 1956 to 1959 (= Bandaranaike International Airport).
Writer and poet
- Arthur Charles Clarke (born 1917)
The English science fiction writer, who has lived in the city since 1956, is
undisputedly one of the most famous residents of Colombo.
- WASilva (1890-1957)
writer. He wrote numerous books and novels and published newspapers and
- Arumuga Navalar (1822-1879)
writer and translator.
- Dr. Ediriweera Sarachchandra (1914-1996)
writer, poet and diplomat. He wrote the first play in Sri Lanka.
- Gunadasa Amarasekera (born 1929)
writer and poet.
- GB Senanayake (1913-1985)
- K. Jayatillake (born 1926)
writer and literary critic.
- Sugathapala De Silva (1928-2002)
writer and playwright.
- Mahagama Sekara (1929-1976)
writer and poet.
- Simon Navagattegama (1940-2005)
writer, poet, playwright and actor.
- Bevis Bawa (1909-1992), landscape
architect and sculptor. The loving care and decoration of the Brief Gardens
in Beruwela go back to Bawa.
- Geoffrey Bawa (1919-2004),
architect. Bawa is considered to be the most important architect in Sri
Lanka. His work includes the Parliament building of Sri Lanka, the Ruhunu
University of Matara and the Old Shepherd's Chuch in Banderawela.
- Susanthika Jayasinghe (born 1975)
athlete. She won the bronze medal at the Summer Olympics in 2000.
- Velupillai Prabhakaran (born 1954)
leader of the Tamil Tigers (LTTE), which fights for the independence of the
Tamils, including through terrorist means. The LTTE has been declared a
terrorist organization in the USA, Great Britain, Canada, India and the EU
- Godwin Samararatne (1932-2000)
In the year 2000, this Buddhist meditation teacher, who had directed
the Nilambe Meditation Center near Kandy for almost 20 years, died in Peradeniya
Samararatne was a teacher who taught the meditation practice of Vipassana and
Metta in a humorous and lifelike way in many countries
in Europe, Asia and Africa, giving many people an orientation in their
lives. At the time of his death he was considered one of the most
internationally known personalities of Theravada Buddhism.
Sri Lanka: animals
You can still find wild Asian elephants on the island.
It is worth mentioning the Elephant Transit Home (ETH) in the south of Sri
Lanka, which takes in orphaned and injured baby elephants and nurses them back
Hanuman monkeys These animals belong to the genus of the
Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus) within the family of the vervet monkeys
They are cultural followers and are considered sacred in India. They got their
name after Hanuman - an Indian god in monkey form.
The animals reach a length of between 40 to 80 cm, with a tail up to 110 cm
long. Your weight is a little under 25 kg. The fur of the animals is colored
gray on the upper side, while the underside is whitish or orange-yellow.
Her hairless face is black or purple and impresses with its pronounced bulges
above the eyes.
Their diet consists of plants and insects. The females give birth to a young
every two years.
In some cities they have become almost a nuisance, but are still being fed by
Sri Laka leopards
Leopards belong to the group of big cats alongside lions, tigers and
jaguars. The animal belongs to the species "Panthea paedus". There are eight
subspecies of the leopard.
The animals are found in Africa and parts of Asia, with the largest population
living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The subspecies "Sri Lanka Leopard" (Panthera pardus kotiya) lives in Sri Lanka -
and only here. About 400 to 600 specimens still live
here.The Sri Lankan leopard is usually slightly larger than the other subspecies
with a body length of about 110 to 150 cm and a shoulder height of up to 75 cm.
However, the females are 30 to 40 kg lighter than the 50 to 70 kg males.
You can find a detailed and illustrated representation of the leopard at
Goruma here >>>
Hanuman langurs, hat monkeys and white-bearded langurs also live here in Sri
Sambars, which belong to the genus of noble deer, axis deer and wild boar are
also native here.
Other mammals in Sri Lanka are macaques (a type of monkey), leaf monkeys,
bears, water buffalo, mongoose, crawling cats or palm squirrels.
In addition, the visitor's eye is drawn to the numerous feral dogs, which one
has to be on the lookout for as they can be carriers of numerous diseases.
Whales are mammals that do not have gills but are lung breathers.
Therefore, at some point you have to get to the surface of the water to breathe
It is unfortunate that a number of states are still hunting these wonderful
But since they live in water, a separate chapter was devoted to them.
whales Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) belong to the
subordination of the baleen whales and can be over 30 m long, with a weight of
over 200 tons. This whale is the largest animal in the world.
The animal feeds on plankton, which it filters out of the sea water with the
help of its whiskers. It reaches depths of approx. 100 m.
After mating, after a gestation period of about eleven months, the young are
born with a length of about 7m. It is then suckled for six to seven months.
A female blue whale is pregnant about every two years.
Blue whales are found in practically all oceans, but depending on the season
they change their territories, for example in winter they migrate to more
tropical or subtropical regions.
The humpback whales () belong to the bearded whales and reach an average length
of approx. 14 m - with a weight of 25 to 30 tons.
Their diet consists mainly of krill, but to a lesser extent also of fish, but
they only eat food in their summer quarters, in winter they live on their fat
reserves. They find their food in water depths of up to 50 m
The humpback whale occurs in all oceans. But depending on the season, they
change their territories, for example in winter they migrate to more tropical or
subtropical regions. It should be noted that the animals of the Indian Ocean do
not migrate north, but sometimes remain in the area of the tropical sea areas
in summer, but sometimes also migrate to the Southern Ocean.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) occurs in practically all oceans. They
are even found in the Azores, off Portugal and in the Mediterranean - for
example in the area of the Greek coast at the Hellenic Trench.
It belongs to the order of the whales (Cetacea) and to the subordination of the
toothed whales (Odontoceti). The further subdivision is the family of the sperm
whales (Physeteridae) the genus Physeter.
The animals can reach a length of around 20 m - with a weight of around 50 tons,
but the females are around 12 m in length.
The females (cows) live with their young in groups of fifteen to twenty
animals. During the breeding season, the males (bulls) come back to the group of
The gestation period of the cows is assumed to be up to 17 months. After birth,
the young weigh around 1,000 kg and are between four and five and a half meters
tall. They are suckled by the mother for one to two years.
The diet of sperm whales consists mainly of squid. In addition to octopus, they
also feed on fish from time to time - such as cod, tuna or monkfish.
When searching for food, they reach depths of more than 1,000 m. Due to food
residues in the digestive tract of the animals, they even seem to dive up to
3,000 m deep.
You can stay underwater for up to 80 minutes.
The only enemy of adult whales is humans, who still hunt them, but are
repeatedly hindered by animal rights activists
Sperm Whales Minke Sperm Whales (Kogia breviceps) reach a
length of about 3m and a weight of up to 400 kilograms.
They belong to the order whales (Cetacea), to the suborder Toothed whales
(Odontoceti) and to the family Kogiidae.
They are slightly larger than the small sperm whales with which together they
form the genus Kogia.
They are found living alone but also in groups of up to six animals in the
oceans of the tropics and temperate zones.
Their diet consists mainly of squid and crustaceans, which they prey at depths
of up to 1,200 meters.
After a gestation period of around 11 months, they give birth to their young and
then breastfeed them for at least a year
Fortunately, they have never been hunted on a large scale. But marine pollution
and the risk of getting caught in fishing nets are a major threat to
animals. Dead animals are repeatedly found
in the gill nets off the coast of Sri Lanka.
In addition, whales are repeatedly killed by ships in the strait between Sri
Lanka and India.
!! Whale Watching !!
To do this, you start on the south coast of the island in the small town of
Mirissa at the local "Whale Watching Center".
The whale watching tour usually starts in the early morning. A pleasant side
effect is that you can also see dolphins
The saltwater crocodile (crocodylus porosus) is also known as the saltwater
crocodile, although the animal can also be found in freshwater.
The animals are the largest living species of crocodile, ahead of the Nile
crocodile. They can reach lengths of up to 5 m, with the females being
significantly smaller at around 3 m.
They feed primarily on fish, water turtles, as well as mammals and birds.
They have the largest range of all crocodiles, which extends from the East
Indies through Southeast Asia to Northern Australia including the oceanic
The animals were found on the Palau Islands, the Cocos Islands, the New Hebrides
The marsh crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) reaches a maximum length of about 4
m. The adult animals are gray to gray-brown - mostly with dark markings.
In addition to Sri Lanka, the animals can be found on the Indian subcontinent,
in eastern Iran, in a large part of Pakistan and on the Terai plateau in Nepal.
The swamp crocodile is a freshwater resident found mainly in rivers, lakes and
swamps. Marsh crocodiles feed on fish, frogs and water turtles, while large
specimens also catch deer, gaure and water buffalo.
With the exception of Sri Lanka, the animals are now seriously threatened, for
example in Bangladesh they have been completely exterminated.
The local Tiger Python (Python molurus) is also known as the Indian Mountain
Python. It also occurs in western India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar,
Vietnam and parts of Thailand.
A detailed description of the dark tiger python (Python bivittatus) can be found
at Goruma here >>>
Geckos can be found in the temperate zones as well as in the deserts, but
especially in the tropics. The geckos are lizards and, depending on the area of
distribution, reach sizes between 1.5 cm and approx. 40 cm.
The gecko family (Gekkonidae) includes around 55 different genera with more than
1,000 species. About three quarters of the animals are crepuscular or nocturnal.
Because of the hair on their feet, they can run up vertical walls and even run
along the ceilings.
Their diet consists mainly of insects.
For example, the following species can be found in Sri Lanka:
- Sri Lankan house gecko
- Asian house gecko
- House gecko - Fringe-tailed house gecko.
Indian star tortoise
The Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans) is considered by many to be the
most beautiful tortoise species. Its yellow, radial drawing on the black
background of its tank is striking.
The animal reaches a size of about 40 cm and can weigh up to 8 kg. They can be
found from Pakistan across the central area and the south of India to Sri Lanka.
In Sri Lanka, the animals live in sand dunes, bush forests or overgrown parks.
Their diet consists mainly of grass, fallen fruit and even flowers.
To reproduce, the females lay between five and nine eggs, which - depending on
the season and temperature - hatch after 90 to 150 days.
The Parker's black-bellied terrapin (Melanochelys trijuga parkeri) is a
subspecies of the Indian black-bellied turtle (Melanochelys trijuga). There are
six subspecies in total. From the genus Melanochelys there is also the
three-keeled terrapin (Melanochelys tricarinata)
The animals live in and around water or in swamps.
Their size varies between 35 to 45 cm. The animal is uniformly brown to dark
brown and black with yellow stripes on its underside. These turtles are active
mornings and evenings and spend the rest of the day basking in the sun.
Their food ranges from aquatic plants and aquatic insects to the carcasses of
For reproduction, the female lays up to 6 eggs, which hatch after 60 to 65 days.
The eggs are laid in nests in the ground or in wells dug in dried elephant dung.
There are five species of sea turtles in Sri Lanka - namely the green turtle
(Chelonia mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), the leather
turtle (Dermochelys coriacea),
the olive ridged turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) and the loggerhead turtle..
In order to reproduce, the animals dig a hole up to 40 cm deep in order to lay
up to 250 eggs each. The eggs are hatched in the warm sand for about 48 days.
It is noteworthy that the temperature of the sand determines the sex of the
animals. At temperatures above 29.9 °C, females develop - and below that,
males. When hatching, the animals are about 6 cm tall.
Overall, only 1-3 out of 1,000 eggs reach adulthood. Most of the rest become
victims of humans, birds and fish before or on the way to the sea.
The leatherback turtle is presented here as an example. With a shell size of
about 2.50 m and a weight of up to 700 kg, the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys
coriacea) is the largest turtle in Sri Lanka.
This turtle belongs to the Dermochelyidae family and to the genus
Dermochelys. The animals are ocean dwellers and live in all tropical and
In summer they can also be found in the temperate zones. The animals can dive up
to 1,200 m deep.
Their skin food is jellyfish. Their reproduction was shown under general.
!! Note !!
In the southwest of Sri Lanka is the fishing village of Kosgoda and here the
oldest turtle farm on the island - it's the Victor Hasselblad Turtle Hatchery,
which was created in 1979.
Since the station was founded, locals, foreign guest scientists and volunteers
have been committed to the preservation and protection of the sea turtle species
that live in the local sea.
Sea Turtle Research Center
K. Chandrasiri Abrew
Galle Road 72/4
Tel.: 0094 - (0) 777 - 810 509 0094 - (0) 777 - 810 509
Monitor lizards (Varanus) belong to the genus of the scalloped reptiles
(Squamata) and to the sub-order of the sneaky (Anguimorpha). In total there are
around 80 different species with numerous subspecies. They are found in the
tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia and Australia. The smallest
species are only around 20 cm and the largest up to 3 m.
A peculiarity of the animals is their long tongue, split at the tip, which helps
to perceive smell when tipping the tongue.
All monitor lizards are diurnal and, depending on the species or subspecies,
live on the ground, on trees or even in water.
With the exception of three species in the Philippineswho also eat fruit, all
monitor lizards are carnivores, and their diet consists of insects,
invertebrates and vertebrates.
Some species also have carrion on the menu.
The following two species are native to Sri Lanka:
The Bengal monitor (Varanus bengalensis) is divided into two subspecies. Both
subspecies reach a total length of about 1.5 meters, with the females being
slightly smaller. The main diet consists of small invertebrates such as insects,
spiders, scorpions, centipedes, crustaceans and snails. But neither does he
disdain vertebrates such as fish, frogs or lizards. The Bengal monitor is a
loner mostly lives on the ground, but it can also climb and swim.
The two subspecies are found in southeastern Iran, large parts of Pakistan,
India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, southern China, Burma, Thailand, Laos,
Cambodia, Malaysia, and Sumatra as well as Java.
The subspecies Varanus bengalensis bengalensis lives more in the eastern while
the Varanus bengalensis nebulosus rather in the western parts of the
The Bindenwaran (Varanus salvator) is divided into five subspecies and reaches
lengths up to more than 2 m, whereby the males are heavier than the females.
This type of monitor lizard can be found in the northeastern part of India, in
Bangladesh and Burma as well as on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
They are also found in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in southern China
The white monitor monitor can also be found in Singapore, Borneo, Java, Sumatra,
the Lesser Sunda Islands on Sulawesi and the Obi Islands.
The animals mainly inhabit the rivers in rainforests and mangrove forests.
Their diet ranges from insects to fish and reptiles to small mammals and birds.
Poisonous animals - without poisonous snakes
The black scorpions are found all over the country. Especially when it rains
after a long period of drought, they come out of the caves because they then
fill with water. They then look for a dry place that they can find in a shoe or
a backpack. Scorpion stings are usually not life-threatening for adults and the
severe symptoms subside after a few hours, in exceptional cases only after one
or two days. With small children, however, there is a risk of death. The local
scorpions only sting when they feel threatened, whereas most people are stung
when they step on a scorpion, for example when it has hidden itself in a shoe or
These centipedes with their 35 to 50 pairs of legs are between 10 cm and 25 cm
in length, some species are even longer. Their skin color is reddish brown.
The nocturnal, almost blind animals are pure carnivores. Even touching the
animal leads to painful burns.
They can also use their jaw forceps to inject a poison that decomposes the cells
through a bite.
This is usually not life-threatening, but it does lead to a strong swelling of
the wider area around the bite site and to very painful and also poorly healing
There are around 85 land snakes in Sri Lanka, a number of which are very
In 2015 around 32,000 people were bitten by snakes, 200 of whom died as a result
of the bite.
However, the number of those bitten is likely to be a lot higher since not all
of them go to a doctor or a hospital. The most dangerous snakes are:
Spectacle snake (well well)
This snake belongs to the real cobras.
In Sri Lanka, the animal is considered sacred.
A detailed description of the snake can be found at Goruma here >>>
There are two types of kraits on the island, namely the Ceylon krait (Bungarus
ceylonicus) and the Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) - which is also known as
the common krait.
Kraits venom is an extremely potent neurotoxin, and a bite is almost always
fatal without intensive treatment with an antiserum.
This nocturnal snake tends to settle in beds, sleeping bags, tents, etc. during
the day. to rest and react very aggressively when disturbed.
At night, when hunting, it often ends up in the (straw) huts of locals or
viper The Ceylon lance viper (Trieresurus trigonocephala) occurs only in Sri
It reaches a maximum length of 1.30 m.
Their color ranges from light green to light blue to dark blue. The black temple
band which runs from the eye to the rear corner of the mouth is typical. The
pattern on the back consists of paired semi-circles up to a closed black circle.
The snake is both diurnal and nocturnal. Due to its pronounced prehensile tail,
it can climb excellently.
Their habitat are the warm and humid forests, as well as the bushes and tea
plantations. They can be found at altitudes over 2,000 m.
Their diet consists mainly of lizards (geckos), frogs, birds and mice.
Chain viper (Russel's Viper)
This viper (Daboia russelli pulchella) is a subspecies of the (Daboia russelli)
The snake reaches a length of 1.00 m to 1.50 m. It is responsible for more
deaths than any other venomous snake combined. When she feels threatened, she
curls up, hisses, and whips like a whip at the troublemaker.
The range is up to 3 m, so that the attacked person hardly has a chance to
A detailed description of this snake can be found at Goruma here >>>
Asian sand rattle otter (Saw-Scaled Viper)
Despite its small size of 0.45 m to 0.60 m, the Asian sand rattle otter (Echis
carinatus) is very dangerous. The snake got its name because of the raspy sound
it makes when it curls up and rubs the scales together. The animal is considered
to be very aggressive and attacks everyone who comes into their territory. Since
this snake can jump several meters, it is particularly dangerous. The animal
lives mainly in rural and dry surroundings as well as between rocks.
A detailed description of this snake can be found at Goruma here >>>
All sea snakes inject more venom than is necessary, as there is a risk of the
venom being washed out in the sea water.
The poison of a sea snake usually leads to death within a short time if left
Fortunately, most sea snakes are not aggressive and only bite when they are
attacked or when they feel threatened.
Fishers who have brought a sea snake onto board in their nets are often affected
by sea snake bites.
It is worth mentioning that some sea snakes are very curious and can therefore
get threateningly close to swimmers. Then reacting with defensive movements
would encourage the animals to bite.
Sea snakes are found on all coasts of Sri Lanka. In alphabetical order they are:
- Bombay sea snake (Hydrophis mamillaris)
- Collared sea snake (Hydrophis stricticollis)
- Yellow sea snake (Hydrophis spiralis)
- Common sea snake (Hydrophis inornatus)
- Yellow-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis plarutus) - also known
as the platelet sea snake.
- Hartwick sea snake (Hydrophis hardwickii)
- Cone-nosed sea snake (Hydrophis jerdonii)
- Adder flattail - also known as yellow-lipped sea snake (Laticauda colubrina).
- Ornate reef sea snake (Hydrophis ornatus)
- Persian Gulf sea snake (Hydrophis lapemoides)
- Russel's sea snake (Hydrophis obscurus)
- Black banded sea snake (Hydrophis nigrocinctus)
- Shaw sea snake (Hydrophis curtus)
- Striped rowing
snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) - Viper sea snake (Hydrophis viperinus)
In the species-rich bird world of Sri Lanka with around 430 bird species,
including 21 endemic species, herons and huge flocks of cormorants stand
out. Parrots and numerous corvids also populate the island.
The following birds can also be found here, for example:
eagles, buzzards, falcons, warblers, orioles, quails, chickens, ducks, geese,
woodpeckers, bearded birds, eagle owls, owls, plovers, lapwing, warbler,
swallows and gulls.
fish A large number of different fish species live in the waters around Sri
Lanka. A selection:
- Reef sharks (white tip and black tip reef sharks)
- bull sharks
- tiger sharks
- whale sharks
There are also dolphins and porpoises in the waters.
You can also find perch, triggerfish, wrasse, mackerel, moray eels, parrot fish,
sardines, stone fish, octopus and tuna in the sea.
Many of the fish that live here in the rivers and lakes are
almost unknown to us.
The following fish are worth mentioning:
perch, barbel, carp, the freshwater moray eel and catfish.
Sri Lanka: plants
A large number of endemic - only occurring here - plant species grow in Sri
Lanka, making Sri Lanka one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in Asia.
Precipitation is highest in the west of the country, which has resulted in
tropical rainforests and mountain forests.
On the other hand, in the north and east of the island with little precipitation
there is a xerophytic (= adapted to water scarcity) bush vegetation.
In addition to the endemic plants, there are also numerous plants from the
Middle East, Southeast Asia and Malaysia.
Since it is impossible to show all plants here, a selection - certainly
subjective - had to be made.
It should be noted that for a number of plants no German name is known and is
therefore only mentioned for species identification.
trees and shrubs
This plant belongs to the plant genus Aglaia and the family of mahogany trees
(Meliaceae), of which there are around 50 genera.
There are around 390 species of the genus Aglaia, one of which is Aglaia
roxburghiana, which grows in Sri Lanka. The leaves of the tree are used as a
traditional remedy for a number of diseases.
The acacia (Acacia) are a kind of the subfamily Mimosagewächse (Mimosoideae)
There are about 1,400 kinds of this kind, which occur in Europe, America and
from the subtropics up to the tropics. Around 950 of them grow in Australia.
They occur as trees or tall bushes up to 10 m high.
In Sri Lanka they belong to the evergreen plants.
This deciduous tree over 20 m high belongs to the Mimosaceae family and to the
genus Albizzia. The yellowish-white flowers grow in clusters on the leaf axes or
at the end of the branches.
The plant's generic name was named after the Italian nobleman Filippo degli
Albizzi, who belonged to the Florentine Albizzi family and who brought the plant
to Europe around the middle of the 18th century.
The up to 8 m high silk tree (Albizia julibrissin) belongs to the genus
The bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa) - a poplar fig is particularly worth
mentioning. Buddha Sakyamuni achieved his enlightenment under a bodhi tree.
The daughter of Emperor Asoka, Sanghamitta, who later became a nun, had brought
an offshoot of the tree to Sri Lanka, where it still grows in the ancient city
Branches of the tree can be found in every Buddhist temple on the island.
Ceylon Tea Tree (Ceylon Tea)
This tree of the plant species (Elaeodendron glaucum) from the genus
Elaeodendron and the family Celastraceae becomes 18 to 20 m high. It grows wild,
but is also used as a cultivated plant to beautify parks and gardens. It is also
used medicinally. However, despite its name, it is not used to make tea
. Besides Sri Lanka, it also grows in Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Cambodia and
Drypetes sepiaria is a smaller tree in the genus Drypetes and the family
Light red edible fruits grow on the tree. In addition, its wood is often used
for fences and as firewood.
trees The ebony trees (Diospyros) also known as persimmons occur in different
species both as trees and as bushes,
- Ceylon ebony tree (Diospyros ebenum)
The Ceylon ebony tree is an evergreen tree between 20-25 m high that used to be
(today hardly any more) was used for furniture construction and has the best
quality of all ebony wood, it was or is easy to work, weather and termite
- Persimmon tree (Diospyros kaki)
The persimmon tree grows up to 10 m high. The persimmon plum grows on it, a
sweet, orange-colored fruit that looks like a large tomato. It grows
up to 10 m high
apple tree The elephant apple tree (Limonia acidissima), also
known as the Indian crab apple tree, grows on the arid plains of Sri Lanka. It
belongs to the genus Limonia and to the family of the diamond plants (Rutaceae).
It is deciduous with heights of about 9 m. The fruits of the tree are used as
The evergreen ironwood tree was named the national tree of Sri Lankas in
February 1986. The tree owes its name to the fact that its wood is extremely
It reaches a height of up to 13 m, whereby the trunk reaches a diameter of up to
90 cm. The scent of its 7 to 8 cm white flowers is downright bewitching.
Falcataria moluccana is the only species in the genus Falcataria. The tree also
belongs to the subfamily of the mimosa family (Mimosoideae) and the legume
With its growth rate of 10 m in 12 months, the tree is considered to be the
fastest growing tree in the world.
It is a deciduous tree that can reach heights of up to 40 m - with a diameter of
the trunk of more than 100 cm, which usually only branches from a height of
approx. 20 m.
The tree forms a wide and flat treetop and a large, umbrella-shaped canopy.
poison tree The fish poison tree or putat tree (Barringtonia asiatica) can reach
a height of up to 25 m. Its habitat is mainly near mangrove forests and on the
The oval-shaped leaves up to 15 cm long are striking. The blossoms of the tree
are located on a long stem and unfold their beauty during the dark and often
fall to the ground afterwards, where they develop a bewitching scent.
The substance saponin, which is particularly found in the seeds of the plant, is
often used for fishing - hence the name of the tree. To do this, the powdered
seeds are sprinkled into the water, where they have an anesthetic or toxic
effect on the fish.
Saponins are glycosides of steroids or steroid alkaloids.
The flea tree (Albizia lebbeck) is a species from the genus Albizia, which also
includes the silk tree.
The tree reaches a height between 18 to 30 m - with a diameter of the trunk of
50 cm to 1 m.
This type of plant from the genus Diplodiscus and the family Malvaceae is only
found in Sri Lanka.
There are a total of 10 species of the genus Diplodiscus.
They come as very densely leafy and evergreen smaller trees or shrubs.
Haldina cordifolia also known as Adina cordifolia is a more than 20 m high
deciduous tree from the Rubiaceae family and the Haldina genus.
The yellow-pink colored flowers are worth seeing when they bloom in balls with a
circumference of 2 to 3 cm. The bark of the tree has an antiseptic and
Indian elm plant
The Indian elm plant (Holoptelea integrifolia) is a deciduous tree that belongs
to the genus Holoptelea and to the family Ulmaceae.
Besides India and China it is also found in Sri Lanka. The plant is a fast
growing tree that reaches heights of 20 to 30 m.
It is used as industrial firewood.
The casuarinas (Casuarina) belong to the order of the beech-like (Fagales) and
to the family of the casuarina plants (Casuarinaceae).
The genus Casuarina includes six species.
They originally come from Australia and its northern islands.
In Sri Lanka you can find these evergreen trees mainly on the coast because they
are relatively insensitive to salt. Depending on the species, they can reach
heights of over 20 m.
Their thin and green-colored branches with a length of more than 10 cm and their
strongly receding leaves have a certain resemblance to conifers.
Manilkara hexandra belongs to the genus Manilkara and the family Sapotaceae.
The tree is a slow-growing and evergreen tree that reaches heights between 40
and 80 m - with a circumference of up to about 3 m. The bark is gray-black and
rough. The wood is hard, heavy and very durable with a weight of around 1,056 kg
Its dark pink to dark purple wood is used for goal posts and large beams.
In Sinhala, the tree is called Palu, Palai or Rayan.
Peacock chaste tree
The Peacock chaste tree (Vitex altissima) is an evergreen tree that can reach a
height of 30 m and has a dense treetop.
It belongs to the genus Vitex and to the mint family (Lamiacae).
Its leaves and roots are used in Ayuvedic medicine.
Besides Sri Lanka, it occurs in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar and
Papua New Guinea.
The plant species Polyalthia korinti belongs to the genus Polyalthia and to the
family Annonaceae. This evergreen tree reaches heights of up to around 5 m
The red cassia (Cassia roxburghii) belongs to the genus Cassia (Cassia), the
subfamily of the carob family (Caesalpinioideae) and the legume family
Plants are shrubs or trees that reach a height of 15 to 20 m.
The flowers stand together in terminal racemose inflorescences and make the tree
appear in a splendid pink or rose color during flowering.
Their fruits are legumes.
The plant was named after the Scottish biologist William Roxburgh (1751-1815).
Strobilanthes stenoden belongs to the genus Strobilanthes and to the family
Mavaceae. The evergreen tree reaches heights of over 10 m.
The leaves of the plant are green-blue to purple and the flowers are white. You
can find the tree in the Wasgamuwa National Park.
The tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica), also called Indian date or sour date, is
the only species from the genus Tamarindus.
The tamarind tree grows as an evergreen tree that reaches heights of 6 to 25 m.
The toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica), also known as the arrak tree, grows on
sandy, dry or salty soils.
Salvadora persica is an evergreen, fast-growing shrub or small tree that reaches
heights between 2.5 to 6 m. The plant got its name because its buds, roots and
branches are traditionally used for dental care.
Lemon wood tree (Ceylon satinwood)
The lemon wood tree (Chloroxylon swietenia) is a hardwood tree from the genus
Chloroxylon, the subfamily Flindersioideae and the family Rutaceae. The tree
reaches a height of 15 to 20 m.
The wood often has a golden sheen and is often used as a veneer for wooden
Cultivated or useful plants
The bananas (Musa) are a genus of plants from the banana family (Musaceae) of
which there are around 70 species, 30 of which are also found in Sri Lanka.
After about twenty weeks, red flowers form on the up to 5 m high banana plants,
from which the bananas develop.
The dessert banana (Musa paradisiaca) is well known. However, the most
economically important banana variety bred from 1953 onwards is the Cavendish
variety, which was named after William Cavendish, the sixth Duke of Devonshire.
This tree (Berrya cordifolia) belongs to the genus Berrya and to the family
Malvaceae. The evergreen deciduous tree grows up to 27 m high. It is used as
construction timber, for furniture and for shipbuilding.
tree The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the genus Anacardium
and the sumac family (Anacardiaceae). The evergreen tree reaches heights between
10 to 12 m with a trunk diameter of 1.50 m and approx. 30 cm.
He delivers the cashew apples and cashew nuts. The cashew fruit is small and
greenish to brownish in color and hangs down on a 5-10 cm long, fleshy,
thickened fruit stalk, which is known as the cashew apple.
In the cashew fruit are the kernels that are sold as cashew nuts or cashew
nuts. The nutshell contains an oil called Cardol, which causes severe burns on
the mucous membrane and is very irritating to the skin.
The cardol is deactivated by the roasting or heating process. The kernels are
offered raw, roasted and salted, seasoned or caramelized.
Cinchona trees The cinchona trees (Cinchona) belong to the
red family (Rubiaceae). There are around 23 different species of the genus
Cinchona, some of which are grown in tropical areas for the production of
Quinine is used as a therapeutic agent against malaria - especially against its
most severe form, malaria tropica.
Quinine is also added to drinks such as bitter lemon or tonic water. The maximum
amount permitted in Germany is 85 mg/kg in non-alcoholic beverages and 300 mg
/ kg in alcoholic beverages - for example in bitters.
The real fig (Ficus carica) is a species of figs (Ficus) and belongs to the
mulberry family (Moraceae). The fig is a shrub or small tree 3 to 10 m high that
sheds its leaves. The trunk is usually gnarled, twisted or curved. The bark is
smooth and light gray. It is one of the oldest cultivated useful plants in the
After pollination, the inflorescence develops into the familiar fig in three to
five months. Their shape is spherical to pear-shaped. The color is - depending
on the variety considered - green to dark purple.
However, figs play a rather subordinate role in Sri Lanka - the main growing
areas are mainly in the Mediterranean region.
The guavas (Psidium) are a genus of plants from the myrtle family (Myrtaceae) of
which there are a number of species. The Psidium species are evergreen shrubs or
small trees with a gray and smooth bark.
The spherical to pear-shaped and fleshy berries contain many seeds. In Sri
Lanka, guavas are eaten with salt and lots of chilli.
The Indian helmet (Holoptelea integrifolia) is a deciduous tree that can grow up
to 18 m high. It belongs to the genus Holoptelea and to the family Ulmaceae. The
tree is also known as Ulmus integrifolia.
The tree has a wide range of uses in medicine; the seeds and the paste obtained
from the bark are used to fight ringworm - a fungal infection.
The bark and leaves are also used against rheumatism, edema, diabetes, leprosy
and other skin diseases. And it should even help against gluten intolerance.
The indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria) is a shrub from the genus Indigofera and
the legume family (Fabaceae).
Its main purpose is to obtain the valuable dye indigo, which is a deep blue on
the border with violet.
The coffee plants (Coffea) belong to the genus Coffea in the Rubiaceae family
and include 124 known species.
The most famous among them are Arabica coffee plants (Coffea arabica) and
Robusta coffee plants (Coffea canephora). The coffee plants are evergreen small
trees or shrubs.
The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) belongs to the milkweed family
The rubber tree originally comes from the Amazon basin in Brazil. As an
important natural supplier of the rubber milk (natural rubber), which is used to
manufacture rubber, it began its triumphal march in the tropical regions of the
In Sri Lanka, the rubber trees grow on large plantations and reach a height of
between 30 and 40 m. The trunk is relatively slim with its diameter of up to 35
centimeters. At the age of 5 to 6, they can be tapped for five to six years,
whereby the bark is cut open in a spiral with a special knife and the rubber
milk is obtained in a collecting container attached to the tree. When they are
over 25 years old, they no longer give off any milk and are then felled for wood
It is worth mentioning that a local research institute deals almost exclusively
with the product obtained from the tree.
The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a palm tree on which coconuts grow. It
belongs to the genus Cocus.
The trees are unbranched and reach heights between 20 and 25 m - rarely higher.
The coconuts have an extremely hard brown shell and underneath a firm, tasty
white flesh. It also contains coconut milk.
The lychee tree (Litchi chinensis) is the only species of the plant genus Litchi
and belongs to the soap tree family (Sapindaceae).
The lychee tree is an evergreen tree with heights of 10 m - rarely 15 m.
The fruits of the tree are called lychee, litch or lychee.
They are a very tasty fruit and are very popular in Germany.
The mango tree (Mangifera indica) belongs to the genus of the mangoes
(Mangifera) and to the sumac family (Anacardiaceae).
The evergreen mango tree with its dark green leaves can in rare cases grow up to
40 m high and have a treetop with a diameter of up to 30 m.
Many small, white to pink flowers stand together in upright inflorescences. When
they are open they smell of lilies.
After the flowers wilt, it takes about 3 to 5 months for the fruits to be ripe.
The ripe mango fruit hangs on long stalks and weighs up to 2 kg.
The fruit has a thin and smooth skin and underneath it a soft, yellowish,
deliciously tasting flesh with a large and flattened core.
The mangostin tree (Garcinia mangostana) is a type of plant from the genus
Garcinia and the family Clusiaceae. The tree is also known as the mangosteen
tree, both names coming from Malay.
It is an evergreen tree that reaches heights between 8 and 25 m. The mangosteen
tree grows relatively slowly and can reach an age well over 100 years.
Mangostines, the tasty fruit of the tree, are offered on the island during the
The mangosteen contain a high concentration of antioxidants and 12 vitamins.
Maracuja (Passiflora flavicarpa) belongs to the genus of passion flowers
(Passiflora) and to the family of passion flower plants (Passifloraceae).
The plant is a strong liana that can reach a length of up to 80 m. The evergreen
leaves are between 7 and 20 cm in size and have a glossy, dark green upper
Maracuja is often confused with passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) or even
equated with it. The passion fruit is about twice as big as the passion fruit.
The skin of the passion fruit is light green to yellowish, depending on the
degree of ripeness.
The taste of passion fruit is rather sour, which makes it a popular ingredient
in juices. The fruit is also often used in desserts as an addition to very sweet
Papaya (Carica papaya), also known as the melon tree, is the only species from
the genus Carica and belongs to the melon tree family (Caricaceae).
The papaya is a mostly unbranched tree-like plant with heights between 5 to 10
m. Because of the lack of lignification and its shape, the papaya is neither a
tree nor a shrub. Some biologists refer to them as tree-like herbaceous plants.
Their fruits are considered more of a vegetable than a fruit and are often
served as a salad.
Papayas have an oval, sometimes pear-like shape. Green fruits are not yet ripe,
they are only when the skin has turned yellow. Then the soft flesh inside is
light orange, pink to cherry red.
rice, the grains of the species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. Only the
species Oryza sativa grows in Sri Lanka, while the species Oryza glaberrima is
native to Africa.
The rice plant Oryza sativa can develop up to 30 stalks and be between 50 and
160 cm high. Rice is grown in water-rich plantations and is the main food source
on the island
The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is a species of the genus Camellia (Camellia)
within the tea shrub family (Theaceae).
Real tea is made from parts of the plants. The Camellia sinensis varieties grow
as evergreen shrubs or small trees with heights of 1 to 5 m - rarely up to 8 m.
The lemon tree (Citrus limon) is a species of the citrus plant (Citrus).
The genus Citrus consists of evergreen trees or large shrubs. They reach heights
of 5 to 25 m.
The approximately fist-sized yellow fruits of the lemon tree are widely known as
Sugar cane Sugar
cane (Saccharum officinarum) belongs to the sweet grass family (Poaceae) and to
the subfamily Panicoideae with about 3,270 other species.
Sugar cane is one of the most important raw material suppliers for the
production of household sugar (sucrose) and increasingly also for the production
Their stalks reach a height of 3 to 6 m - with a diameter of 2 to 4 cm.
Spices, aromatic plants
Sri Lanka has long been known for its numerous and sometimes valuable
spices. They were a lucrative source of income for the British colonial rulers
at the time and are still an important export item today
Ceylon cinnamon is low in coumarin and therefore more digestible than other
types of cinnamon.
It is grown in cinnamon gardens especially in the southwest of the island.
To do this, the bark of young perennials is peeled about twice a year, then
rolled up and dried. Cinnamon oil is also extracted from the leaves.
We particularly know cinnamon as rice pudding with cinnamon and sugar.
In Sri Lanka, numerous dishes are seasoned with chili. There are relatively mild
and extremely hot chilli. The chilli, known as "Nai Miris" in Sinhala, is
extremely hot and can lead to considerable health problems.
Green or red whole pods or chili powder are used.
The turmeric a ca.0,5 m high bush is made from the tuber. To do this, the tuber
is washed off well, boiled and then dried in the sun.
Turmeric is mostly used to color food or monks' robes.
The cloves are buds of a tree that grow in clusters and are harvested when
closed and then dried. In Europe, cloves are mostly used to flavor gingerbread
In Sri Lanka, it is more used to season sauces, meat or fish dishes.
The bulbous roots of the herbaceous plant are peeled and dried.
In Europe, ginger is prepared as a tea or.
These fruit capsules grow on an approx. 3 m high bush; the seeds inside are
Black tea is often served with cardamom (and ginger) in Sri Lanka. A seed pod,
chewed up when nausea or bloating occurs, brings relief.
Coriander consists of small yellow-brown grains that are used to season meat and
The nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) belongs to the genus Myristika and to the
nutmeg family (Myristicaceae). Its seeds, the nutmeg and its coat, mace, are
used as spices.
However, nutmeg trees can only be harvested from the age of 15.
The nutmeg is grated with the help of a small grater and used to season potato
dishes, soups and stews and often also in meat dishes such as meatballs and
It is also suitable as a spice for cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage,
spinach, kohlrabi, red cabbage, peas or carrots.
The pulp is also used to cook nutmeg jelly and nutmeg syrup, which is eaten with
pancakes or used for cocktails. Nutmeg oil also plays an important role in the
It should be noted that the nutmegs are attacked by mold, some of which produce
the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins.
This does not play a major role in the nuts exported to Europe, which are
subject to strict controls, but can be problematic on site.
Pepper also grows wild in Sri Lanka and grows around trees and poles.
- Green pepper is harvested immature and then placed in a vinegar solution.
- Black pepper are the almost ripe and dried kernels
- White pepper is black pepper without its shell
Vanilla is obtained from the pods of different species of the orchid genus
The genus Vanilla comprises around 110 different species, 15 of which have
aromatic capsules that can be used as vanilla pods.
The spiced vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is the most important type for the
production of vanilla pods.
The pods are harvested just before ripening and during the subsequent
fermentation, the milky liquid turns into the strongly scented mass known as
The best-known uses are certainly puddings and creams, as well as vanilla milk
and vanilla ice cream. But it is also used in cosmetics.
Of the genus Dendrobium, which belongs to the orchid family (Orchidaceae), there
are around 1,200 species worldwide. Several species of this genus grow in Sri
Many Dendrobium species grow epiphytically (= growing on other plants) on
trees. Some species also grow on rocky ground.
The Efeutute (pipremnum pinnatum) can be found in Sri Lanka in the
wild. However, it did not originally appear here, but was brought to the island
as an ornamental plant. With the help of its aerial roots, the Efeutute climbs
trees up to a height of 20 m.
They can reach a maximum length of 1 m and a maximum width of about 45 cm. In
Germany it is kept as a houseplant
The Frangipani (Plumeria obtusa) grows as a tree or bush and can reach a height
of about 4.5 m. The elliptically shaped leaves of the plant can be more than 10
cm long. A
special feature are the white-yellow flowers, which give off an intense, sweet
and very pleasant scent. That is why the flowers are often displayed in Sri
Lankan hotels as fragrant jewelry in the rooms of the guests.
The gold trumpet (Allamanda cathartica) belongs to the genus Allamanda, to the
tribe Plumerieae, to the subfamily Rauvolfioideae and to the family of the dog
poison plants (Apocynaceae).
The plant originally comes from the tropical regions of South America.
With the help of its branches it can climb up to 4.5 m high.
Their leaves are dark blue-green in color and have a glossy surface. Its bright
yellow flowers, up to 15 cm long, are shaped like a trumpet - hence their name.
flower The large flamingo flower (Anthurium andraeanum) belongs to the genus of
flamingo flowers (Anthurium) and to the family of arum plants (Araceae).
With its beautiful red flowers, it is one of the popular houseplants in Germany
and the most expensive anthurium flower in Sri Lanka.
J usticia betonica
The shrubs of the evergreen plant species Justicia betonica from the Acanthus
family (Acanthaceae) and the genus Justicia reach heights of up to 1.50 m - with
a width of between 60 to 90 cm.
The purple to mauve flowers of this plant are found in groups on the upright
They attract hummingbirds and butterflies, while pollination is usually done by
The pitcher plant (Nepenthes distillatoria) occurs only in Sri Lanka and here in
the rainforests, where it climbs up the slopes. The basic color of the plant is
green with some reddish areas.
It belongs to the carnivorous plants. For this purpose, can-like formations have
formed at the tips of their leaves, the upper edges of which are very smooth and
curved inward. These jugs reach a size of approx. 10 cm.
Insects that run along here therefore cannot find a hold and slide into the
inside of the jug and into the liquid that is located here, with the help of
which they are then digested.
The oleander (Nerium oleander) is an evergreen plant that can reach a height of
up to 5 m. The leaves 6 to 10 cm long are dark green.
The natural range of the plant extends from North Africa over southern Europe
over the Middle East to India, Sri Lanka and China.
As an ornamental plant, the color of the flowers ranges from white to pink-red.
The orchids (Orchidaceae) are a widespread family of plants. They are considered
The orchid family comprises around 1,000 genera with up to 30,000 species.
Pleurostylia opposita is a species of plant in the genus Pleurostylia and the
In addition to Sri Lanka, this shrub is also found in Australia, China, India,
Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.
The splendid bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis) belongs to the genus
Bougainvillea and to the family of the wonder flower plants (Nyctaginaceae) and
to the order of the carnation-like (Caryophyllales). The origins of the plant
are in Brazil.
It was brought to Europe - probably first to Elba - by the French Louis-Antoine
de Bougainville (1729-1811).
The splendid bougainvillea forms shrubs that can reach a height of up to 12 m.
The plant genus can now be found in people's gardens in many countries, but in
Sri Lanka it is also found in the wild.
The swamp iris (Iris pseudacorus), also known as yellow iris or water iris, is a
species of the iridaceae family.
The swamp iris grows as an herbaceous plant and can reach heights of 1 to 2
m. Its gray-green leaves are up to 90 cm long and 1 to 3 cm wide.
They are mainly found on the damp banks and in the silting zones of standing and
flowing waters as well as in fens and swamp forests.
But it develops particularly well in 20 to 40 cm deep water.
The water hyacinths (Eichhornia) are a genus of plants from the family of the
water hyacinth plants (Pontederiaceae).
The plant received its generic name in honor of the Prussian minister of culture
Johann Albrecht Friedrich von Eichhorn (1779-1856).
The water hyacinths originally come from the tropics of South America.
In addition to their use as ornamental plants, they are used as a raw material
for wickerwork and for making paper.
The plant is also used as a material for biogas plants or for the
decontamination of waters that are polluted with heavy metals.
goblets There are about 60 species of the genus water goblet
(Cryptocoryne). They are aquatic and marsh plants. Some species are used as
- Walker's water goblet (Cryptocoryne walkeri) is a small
plant from the genus Cryptocoryne and the Araceae family.
The plant grows on the river banks of Sri Lanke and reaches a height of 10 to 25
cm. It is often used as an aquarium plant.
The water lily (Nymphaea alba), also known as the white water lily, is a species
of the water lily family (Nymphaeaceae) and is a typical representative of
floating leaf plants.
The pleasantly fragrant white flowers with a gold-colored center and a diameter
of about 8 to 12 centimeters. The flowers close in the evening and when it
Their pollen attracts all kinds of animals.