Turkmenistan: Political System
Turkmenistan is a presidential republic. At the head of the state is a
president. The parliament is a unicameral system, but has a weak position given
the extensive powers of the president. The People's Council is the highest
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the national anthem of Turkmenistan is called "GARASSYZ, BITARAP,
TÜRKMENISTANYÑ DÖWLET GIMNI" and was written by Veli Muchatow.
1st and 2nd stanza of the national anthem
|Türkmenbasyn guran beýik binasy
Berkarar döwletim, jigerim - janym.
Baslaryn taji sen, diller senasy
Dünýä dursun, sen major, Türkmenistanym!Janym gurban sana, Erkana ýurdum
Mert pederlen Ruhy bardyr Königs.
Bitarap, Garassyz topragyn nurdur
Baýdagyn belentdir Dünýan önünde.
In the English translation
|The great creation of Türkmenbasy
Native land, sovereign state
Turkmenistan, light and song of soul
Long live and prosper for ever and ever!I am ready to give life for
The spirit of ancestors descendants are famous for
My land is sacred. My flag flies in the world
A symbol of the great neutral country flies.
Turkmenistan: Known People
- Sergej Artenjewitsch Balasanjan (1902-1982)
was a Turkmen composer.
- Veli Muchatow (born 1916) is the composer of the
Turkmen national anthem.
Politicians and rulers
Saparmurad A. Niyazov (born 1940) has been the head of state
and government of Turkmenistan since 1992.
Writer and poet
- Omar Chajjam (11th century) was a poet, philosopher and
mathematician of Turkmenistan.
- Fragi Makhtumkuli (1770-1840) is the
most important Turkmen writer.
Theologians and philosophers
Zarathustra (around 630 BC - approx. 553 BC) was an ancient
Iranian philosopher from the area of today's Turkmenistan.
In the desert-like steppes of Turkmenistan one can find jerboa as well as
larger mammals such as goiter gazelles or Asian donkeys.
The jerboa are a family of rodents (Dipodidae (in the order of the rodents
(Rodentia). The most common jerboa in Central Asia is the grouse jerboa) (Dipus
The fur of the grouse jerboa is light orange on the upper side in winter and
gray-beige in summer. The underside always remains white. The strong hind legs
have three toes and each of these is studded with bristles, which gave this
jerboa its name. The animals are found in semi-deserts, where they need
sufficient cover from bushes. If they flee, they can jump up to 2 m long - hence
the name. At night they look for berries, seeds and insects. During the day,
they hide in the undergrowth or dig small tunnels. The Lichtenstein jerboa
(Eremodipus lichtensteini) and the comb-toe jerboa (Paradipus ctenodactylus)
also occur in Turkmenistan.
The goiter gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) are a type of gazelle from the family
of horned bearers (Bovidae). Their name comes from the cartilaginous thickened
larynx of the male, which he uses to increase the volume of the rutting calls.
This species of gazelle has six subspecies, most of which are light brown to
sand colored. On the other hand, your belly is lighter. Goiter gazelles are
somewhat more robust than other gazelles and reach a shoulder height of 50–65 cm
with a weight of 30–40 kg. Normally only the bucks have the horns bent backwards
like a lyre, whereby the females are usually hornless. The goiter gazelles
belong to the fast land mammals with speeds around 70 km/h. The animals
inhabit the steppes and semi-deserts of Turkmenistan as well as Transcaucasia,
Palestine, Arabia, Iran and Azerbaijan, up to the Gobi desert and the north of
The Asiatic donkey (Equus hemionus) is similar in appearance to the African
donkey (Equus asinus) - the original form of the house donkey - but also has
many characteristics that are reminiscent of a horse.
With a head-torso length of over 200 cm and a tail length of 40 cm, a shoulder
height of 95 to 135 cm and a weight of 200 to 260 kg, the Asian donkey is
slightly larger than a domestic donkey.
The top of the summer fur of the animals is gray, pale yellow to ocher or
red-brown in color, while the underside, the lower neck and the legs are whitish
or partly cream-colored.
The long-haired and thick winter coat, on the other hand, is darker in color. A
dark brown line stretches across the back, 6 to 8 cm in summer and 7 to 9 cm
wider in winter.
Their diet consists mainly of grass that grows in the dry areas of the country.
ground squirrel The yellow ground squirrel ((Spermophilus fulvus)) is a type of
squirrel from the genus of ground squirrel (Spermophilus). The animals have a
head-trunk length between 22 to 32 cm, with a weight of around 290 to 600 grams.
The tail has a length between about 7 to 8.5 cm. The color of her back is
brown-gold with an ash-gray undercoat. You can find the animals in the west of
Their diet consists of the roots and tubers of desert plants. They hibernate
from September to mid-May.
In addition to Turkmenistan, the animals can also be found east and north of the
Caspian Sea in Russia, in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the west of Tajikistan and in
isolated populations in northeastern Iran and northern Afghanistan.
The caracal (Caracal caracal) is a big cat of the genus Caracal in the family of
cats (Felidae). The animals got their name because of the black color of the
ears (Turkish karakulak = black ear). Because of its similarity to the lynx, it
is also known as the desert lynx.
He lacks the whiskers typical of the lynx, nor does he have their stubby
tail. The black and white drawing of the face around the mouth and eyes is
striking. The fur of the animals is - depending on the region - colored ocher
yellow, gray or wine red. The light belly side is slightly spotted. The
head-trunk length of the animals is on average about 65 cm while their tail is
about 30 cm long. Their shoulder height is around 45 cm and the male weighs
between around 15 to 20 kg, while the females are smaller and lighter. They can
meow, hiss and purr. Their diet ranges from mice to antelopes and birds.
The distribution area of the caracal extends not only over Central Asia but
also over large parts of Africa. The animals are found in dry habitats such as
semi-deserts, steppes and dry forests. In Turkmenistan, the animals can also be
found in the extensive reed thickets along large rivers.
The Karakul sheep (Ovis orientalis) are steppe sheep with a height at the
withers between 65 to 70 cm.
Their color is mostly black, while gray and brown animals are rare. The legs are
black from the knee down. The bucks have horns, while the females are hornless
or have horn stumps. The bucks weigh between 60 and 70 kg, the females between
40 and 50 kg. The animals mainly use their meat, milk, fur, wool and tail
fat. The Karakul sheep is also important because the fur of the very young lambs
is marketed as Persian (coats).
A detailed description of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) can be found at Goruma here
A detailed description of the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) can be found at
Goruma here >>>
The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) is a subspecies of the leopard
(Panthera pardus) in the genus of the real big cats (Panthera). There are fewer
than a hundred of the Persian leopard in Turkmenistan - out of around 1,000
worldwide. The animals are threatened with extinction. The Persian leopards have
a rather light coat and grow larger than other leopards. A detailed description
of the leopard (Panthera pardus) can be found at Goruma here >>>
Tajikistan Wild Sheep
The Tajikistan Wild Sheep or Bukhara Urial (Ovis bochariensis) lives in
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan in addition to Turkmenistan - north of the Amu Darya
and Pyanj rivers.
Afghan Urial Sheep
The Afghan Urial Sheep (Ovis cycloceros) - also known as Turkmenistan wild sheep
- is found in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, eastern Iran, Afghanistan,
northern Pakistan, Kashmir, Punjab and Balochistan.
goats The bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus aegagrus) is a subspecies of the wild goat
(Capra aegagrus) in the genus of goats (Capra) and the family of horned goats
(Bovidae). The Bezoar goat has a head-body length of 80 to 100 cm, a withers of
70 to 80 cm, and a weight between 25 and 45 kg, the females being significantly
smaller than males. In contrast to the females, the buck has a beard on the
chin. The basic color of the animals is usually reddish brown to yellowish
brown. The males get a silver-gray coat in winter. A dark line runs from the
neck to the base of the tail. The belly is dark brown and the legs are also dark
brown in places.
The animals are found in the higher regions of the country.
Among the reptiles in Turkmenistan are various types of lizards and the
following very poisonous snakes:
Asiatic sand-rattle otter (Echis carinatus).
A detailed description of this snake can be found at Goruma here >>>
Levante Otter (Macrovipera lebetina) - In Turkmenistan, one
finds the subspecies Macrovipera lebetina turanica
A detailed description of this snake is found in Goruma here >>>
Central Asian cobra (Naja oxiana).
A detailed description of this snake can be found at Goruma here >>>
The landscape of Turkmenistan consists to a very large extent of desert and
steppe. Only grasses and shrubs that can get by with little rainfall grow
there. In the higher elevations of the country, it rains more and so a greater
variety of plants and trees emerges here, for example wild grapes, figs and
pistachios grow here. Only about 3% of the area of Turkmenistan can be used
However, cotton has been planted with some success, but it has to be heavily
A big problem is that more and more parts of the country are becoming
desert. The soil becomes too salty and then hardly anything grows there and
nothing can be cultivated. The local tamarisks, which are relatively resistant
to salty soils and also tolerate alkaline soils, are an exception. In addition,
the soil and groundwater are often polluted by too much fertilizer and
However, there is more green on the approximately 980 km long Murgab River in
the southeast of the country. The Murgab rises in the Selseleh-ye Safīd Kūh
Mountains in Afghanistan and seeps into the around 400,000 km² Karakum Desert,
which is almost entirely in Turkmenistan and covers around 80% of its area