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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan: Political System

Uzbekistan is a sovereign republic with a presidential system. At the head of the state is the president, who is elected directly by the people every five years and who is also the commander in chief of the armed forces. You can be re-elected as often as you like. Parliament has been a bicameral system since 2004. It is elected by the people every five years and has 250 members.

Uzbekistan: Political System

Uzbekistan is divided into eleven regions and the Karakalpak Autonomous Republic.

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Özbekistan Respublikasy

Republic of Uzbekistan

National anthem

The national anthem of Uzbekistan was given to the country by the government in Moscow during the Soviet era. It was written by Abdulla Aripov and set to music by Mutal Burhanov. It became the country's official anthem in 1992 after Uzbekistan gained independence.

Original text

Serquyash, hur olkam, elga bakht najat Sen ozing dostlarin yoldash, mehriban!

Yashnagay ta abad ilmu fan, ijad,

Shukhrating parlasin taki bar jahn!REFRAIN:

Altin bu vadiylar - jan Ozbekistan,

Ajdadlar mardana Ruhi senga yar!

Ulugh khalq qudrati josh urgan zaman,

Alamni mahliya aylagan diyar!Baghri keng ozbekning ochmas iymani.

Erkin, yash avladlar senga zor qanat!

Istiqlal mash 'ali, tinchlik pasbani,

Khaqsevar ana yurt, mangu bol abad!

Serquyash, hur olkam, elga bakht najat

Sen ozing dostlarin yoldash, mehriban!

Yashnagay ta abad ilmu fan, ijad,

Shukhrating parlasin taki bar jahn!

REFRAIN:

Baghri keng ozbekning ochmas iymani.

Erkin, yash avladlar senga zor qanat!

Istiqlal mash 'ali, tinchlik pasbani,

Khaqsevar ana yurt, mangu bol abad!

REFRAIN

In the English translation

Stand tall, my free country, good fortune and salvation to you,

You yourself a companion to friends, Oh! Loving one!

Flourish, Oh! Creator of eternal knowledge and science,

May your fame for ever shine bright!REFRAIN:

These valleys are golden - my dear Uzbekistan,

Our forefathers' manly spirits your companion!

Strenght of great people in turbulent times

Made this land the world's joy!Oh! Generous Uzbek, your faith will not fade,

Free, young generations are your mighty wings!

The torch of independence, guardians of peace,

Oh! Worthy motherland, flourish and prosper eternally!

REFRAIN:

These valleys are golden - my dear Uzbekistan,

Our forefathers' manly spirits your companion!

Strenght of great people in turbulent times

Made this land the world's joy!

National flag

The national flag (country flag) of Uzbekists was introduced on November 18, 1991. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag are interpreted as follows:

- Blue stands for the sky.

- White symbolizes justice as well as the country's cotton monocultures

- Green stands for the hospitality of the population

- The thin red stripes symbolize the strength of the population

- The crescent refers to the Islam of the predominantly Muslim country

- The twelve small white stars stand for the twelve provinces of Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan flag and coat of arms

Uzbekistan: Known People

Architects and builders

Abdulla Babachanovic (1910-1989)

Abdulla Babachanovi was born on November 8, 1910 in Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan. From 1924 he was in Tashkent, where he also worked as an architect. He died in Tashkent in 1989.

Manolo Nunez-Yanowski (born 1942)

Manolo Nunez-Yanowski was born on July 22, 1942 in Samarkand, the son of a Russian-Spanish republican who was imprisoned in Russian camps for 7 years. He is a Spanish architect and postmodern artist who went to Spain in 1956.

Politicians and rulers

Abdulla Aripov (born 1961)

Abdulla Aripov was born on May 24, 1961 in Tashkent. The Liberal Democratic Party politician and father of five children has been the country's prime minister since December 2016.

Babur (1483-1530)

Zahir ad-Din Muhammad Babur was born on February 14, 1483 in Andijon in the kingdom of Timur in what is now Uzbekistan. He was the first Indian Grand Mughal who, with the conquest of the Sultanate of Delhi in 1526, founded the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent that existed until 1858. He died December 26, 1530 in Agra in what is now India

Islom Karimov (1938-2016)

Islom Karimov was born on January 30, 1938 in Samarkant in what is now the Republic of Uzbekistan. From 1991 until his death he was President of Uzbekistan and Chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan.

He died on September 2, 2016 of complications from a stroke. He found his final resting place on September 3rd in Samarkand.

Habibullah Khan (1872-1919)

Habibullah Khan was born in Tashkent on July 3, 1872. He served as the 15th emir of Afghanistan from October 3, 1901 to February 20, 1919. He was relatively cosmopolitan and a reformist ruler who had tried to modernize his country. Habibullah Khan was murdered on February 20, 1919 by opponents of his policy in Kalagosh in the Laghman province of Afghanistan.

Islomovna Karimova (born 1972)

Gulnora Islomovna Karimova was born on July 8, 1972 in Fergana in what is now Uzbekistan. She is a politician, diplomat and entrepreneur. She is the founder and chairwoman of the trust council of the foundation “Forum of Culture and Art of Uzbekistan and some NGOs that are active in the cultural and social field.

She is the daughter of the former President Islom Karimov (1938-2016).

Shavkat Mirziyoyev (born 1957)

Shavkat Miromonovich Mirziyoyev has been President of Uzbekistan since December 14, 2016.

He was born on July 24, 1957 near Zomin in what is now Uzbekistan. After graduating from high school, he studied mechanical engineering in Tashkent. From 1974 until the end of the Soviet Union had worked in agricultural irrigation technology. In the newly established Republic of Uzbekistan, he was in charge of the administration of the Jizzax Province and from 2001 to 2003 that of the Samarqand Province. From 1999 to 2004 he had a seat in Oliy Majlis, the Uzbek parliament. During this time he was elected head of government in 2003. After the death of President Karimov, Mirziyoyev was elected provisional head of state on September 8, 2016 at a joint session of the two Uzbek parliamentary chambers.

He won the subsequent election on December 4 of the same year with 88.6% of the votes cast.

Jadgar Sadykowna Nasriddinowa (1920-2006)

Jadgar Sadykowna Nasriddinowa was born on December 26, 1920 in Kokand. In 1942 she became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and in October 1950 she was appointed Second Secretary of the Communist Party in Tashkent. In May 1955 she became Minister for the Building Materials Industry of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan and in February 1955 Deputy Chairwoman of the Council of Ministers. In addition, was from 1956 to 1976 a member of the Central Committee (ZK) of the CPSU.

From March 24, 1959 to September 25, 1970, she served as chairwoman of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR and was thus President of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan. After that, from July 1970 to 1974, she was the first woman chairman of the Nationalities Soviet, the representation of the Union Republics in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. After resigning from this office, she was appointed 1st Deputy Minister for Building Materials Industry of the USSR in 1974. She had retired in 1978. She died on April 7, 2006 in Moscow.

Sharaf Rashidow (1917-1983)

Sharaf Rashidow was a politician, writer and poet. He was born on November 6, 1917 in Djisak. From 1944 to 1947 he was appointed secretary for cadre affairs at the Samarkand Area Committee. From 1947 to 1949 he was editor-in-chief of the newspaper "Ksyel Uzbekistan". From 1950 to 1959 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In the same year he was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan. So he was practically head of government in the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan.

He had made a further career when he became a full member of the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1961 and a candidate member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1961, and in 1970 he even received a seat in the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. In addition to politics, he had written books without a political background - for example about life in the country. He had been awarded the Order of Lenin ten times and became Hero of the Soviet Union in 1977. After a corruption scandal in the cotton industry, he died unexpectedly on October 31, 1983 in Tashkent.

Amir Timur (1336 - 1405)

Temür ibn Taraghai Barlas - known in Europe as Timur - was born on April 8, 1336 in Kesch in what is now Uzbekistan. He was an Islamic Central Asian ruler and conqueror. He had sought the restoration of the Mongol Empire under his leadership. As an emir, he founded the Timurid dynasty, which at the zenith of its power ruled large parts of the Middle East and Central Asia.

Timur was extremely brutal, but at the same time he had promoted art and literature. He died on a campaign against the Chinese Empire of the Ming Dynasty on February 19, 1405 in Schymkent in what is now Kazakhstan as a result of excessive alcohol. His final resting place was in the Gur-e Amir mausoleum in Samarkand. The mausoleum was built by his grandson Muḥammad Sultān Mirzā in 1403/1404 and is considered to be one of the most important preserved architectural monuments from this period

Inamschon Usmanchodschajew (1930-2017)

Inamschon Busrukowitsch Usmanchodschajew was born on May 21, 1930 in Fergana, Uzbek SSR was a Soviet or Uzbek politician and from 1983 to 1988 first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan. died on March 17th, 2017 in his hometown Fergana.

Fayzulla Xoʻjayev (1896-1938)

Fayzulla Xoʻjayev was born in Bukhara in 1896. Xo'jayev was appointed leader of the People's Republic of Bukhara and took part in 1923 as a member of the People's Republic of Bukhara on the XII. KPR party conference in Moscow. After the reorganization of Central Asia, Xo'jayev became chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Uzbek SSR and finally also chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR. But after criticizing the leadership style of Josef Stalin and the cotton monocultures, he was ousted on June 17, 1937. He was then tried in Moscow as a “right-wing Trotskyist”. He was then executed in Moscow on March 13, 1938.

Writer, poet, musician

Aibek (

1905-1968) Aibek was the pseudonym of the Uzbek writer Musa Tashmuhammedov. He was born in Tashkent in 1905. His first work was “Feeling” from 1926, the second “Flutes of Heart” from 1929 and the third “Torch” from 1932. He died in 1968 in his hometown of Tashkent.

Mutal Burhanov (1916 - 2002)

Mutal Burhanov was born on April 22, 1916 in Bukara. He is the composer of the Uzbek national anthem.

He died on June 15, 2002

Yefim Bronfman (born 1958)

Yefim Bronfman was born on April 10, 1958 in Tashkent in what is now Uzbekistan, trained as a pianist and played Sergei Rachmaninov's first piano concerto at the age of twelve. At the age of 14 he had emigrated with his parents to Israel, where he had studied music, he continued his studies in the USA. He made his first international appearance in 1975 with the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. He is one of the most famous pianists in the world.

Alischer Nawoi (1441 - 1501)

Mir ʿAli Schir Nawāʾi was born on February 9, 1441 in Herat in what is now Afghanistan. In Uzbekistan he was and is in part still revered almost like a folk hero for his poetry. But he also worked as a Turkish politician and builder at the court of the Timurids in Herat. Nawai died on January 3, 1501 in his hometown of Herat.

Mstislaw Leopoldowitsch Rostropowitsch (1927-2007)

Mstislaw Leopoldowitsch Rostropowitsch was born on March 27, 1927 in Baku. Ewar is a Russian cellist, conductor, pianist, composer and humanist. He was considered one of the most important cellists of his time.

He died on April 27, 2007 in Moscow.

Athlete

Jamolidin Abduschaparov (born 1964) Jamolidin

Mirgarifanowitsch Abduschaparow was born on February 28, 1964 in Tashkent in what is now Uzbekistan. In the 1980s and 1990s, he was considered one of the best sprinters in road cycling.

Grigorjan (born 1967)

Artur Razmikovich Grigoryan was born on October 20, 1967 in Tashkent in what is now Uzbekistan. Out of 38 fights he had won 37 and he was world champion in boxing 15 times.

Iroda Tulyaganova (born 1982)

Iroda Tulyaganova - Iroda Toʻlaganova - was born on January 7, 1982 in Tashkent.

She had started tennis at the age of nine.. As of 1996, she had played 45 games for the Ukraine Fed Cup team, of which she won 25. In 1999 she won at the junior Wimbledon Championships in singles and the US Open in double

your best world ranking position it reached in 2002 with the squares 16 in singles and 28 in doubles

Denis Istomin (born 1986)

Denis Olegowitsch Istomin was born on September 7, 1986 in Orenburg in the Volga Federal District in the Soviet Union. At the age of three months he went to Tashkent with his Uzbek father and Russian mother, where he grew up with a brother. Here he had started playing tennis at the age of five. Not least because his mother worked as a tennis trainer. In 2005 he became a member of the Davis Cup team of Uzbekistan.

Rustam Kasimdschanow (born 1979)

Rustam Kasimjanov was born on December 5, 1979 in Tashkent. He is a chess grandmaster who was world champion in 2004 and 2005. He moved to Solingen in 1999 and then to Ruppichterode near Siegburg in North Rhine-Westphalia, where he lives with his wife and two children.

Lina Cheryasova

Lina Cheryazova - Lina Cheryasova was born on November 1st, 1968 in Tashkent. The former freestyle skier won a gold medal in the aerials (jumping) discipline at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer - it was the first Olympic medal in the history of Uzbekistan - she also became world champion in 1993 in Altenmarkt im Pongau in the state of Salzburg.

Doctors, Scientists

Al-Chwarizmi (780-850)

Al-Chwarizmi was born in Khorezmia in what is now Uzbekistan in 780. He was an eminent Persian-Muslim scholar, mathematician, and astronomer. He had developed important fundamentals of algebra, thus making the zero and the decimal system known in Arabia from India. He had also solved linear and quadratic equations. His book of arithmetic led to the term algorithm

Avicenna (980-1037)

Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Sina-e Balkhi (lat. Avicenna) was a doctor, pysicist and philosopher, one of the most important scientists and philosophers of his time. His medical knowledge was also taught in Europe until the 17th century. He was born in Afshana near Bukhara, which at that time belonged to the Persian Empire. Today the region belongs to Uzbekistan. Avicenna (980-1037) Avicenna was born according to the Julian calendar on August 22, 980 in Afshana near Bukhara in what is now Uzbekistan. Already during his lifetime he was a legendary doctor and scholar who led oriental medicine to the height of its heyday and, with his main work "Canon of Medicine" from around 1030, was also considered a medical authority in Europe for many centuries. He died on June 21, 1037 in Hamadan in what is now Iran.

Abu al-Raihân Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bîrûnî (973-1048)

Abu r-Raihan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was born on September 4th, 973 in Kath near present-day Khiva in Uzbekistan. From 305 to 995, Kath was the capital and residence of the Khorezm Shahs from the Afrighid dynasty. He was a very important polymath. In the city of Kath - together with Abu'l-Wafa (927-998) in Baghdad - he had observed the lunar eclipse of May 24, 997.

By comparing the noted entry times of the moon in the earth's shadow, they were able to determine the difference between the geographic longitudes of Kath and Baghdad. Abu'l-Wafa had constructed a more than 6 m long quadrant and an 18 m long stone sextant in Baghdad. This enabled Abu l-Wafa to determine the inclination of the earth's axis (ecliptic), the length of the seasons and the longitude of Baghdad.

In 1023, al-Biruni had determined the radius of the earth to be 6,339.6 km with the help of a measuring method he had invented - the exact value at the equator is around 6,378 km. He also invented a pycnometer to determine specific gravity. He died on December 9, 1048 in Ghazna in what is now Afghanistan. It should be remembered that for many centuries the Christian occident assumed that the earth was flat. Anyone who violated this view had to expect the stake.

Ulugh Beg

Ulugh Beg was born on March 22, 1394 as the son of Shah Ruchs (1377-1449) in Soltanije in today's Iran. The Shah Ruch had prevailed in the succession battles in 1407 and made Herat the capital in 1409. In order not to give up Samarkand, however, his son was installed as its governor at the age of 15.

He was a great mathematician and astronomer. From him came the Ulug Begs observatory, later named after him, which was destroyed and buried after his disempowerment.

It was only discovered and excavated by Russian archaeologists in 1908. However, Ulugh Beg had made numerous enemies during his reign, which had led to his son Abd al-Latif (murdered 1450) having him deposed. In the following Battle of Samarkand he was defeated and then forcibly sent on a pilgrimage. On this trip he was arrested and then executed on October 27, 1449 in Samarkand. The following statement ascribed to him is undoubtedly valid to this day: "The religions disperse like fog, the tsarist empires destroy themselves, but the work of the scholar remains forever. The pursuit of knowledge is the duty of everyone!"

Others

Alischer Burchanowitsch Usmanow (born 1953)

Alischer Burchanowitsch Usmanow was born on September 9, 1953 in Tschust in what is now Uzbekistan. Usmanov is general director of Gazprom subsidiary Gazprominvestholding, co-owner of Metalloinvest and owner of the Russian publishing house Kommersant, which publishes the business newspaper Kommersant (as of 2019). According to the Forbes 2015 list, his net worth was approximately $ 14.5 billion. For art lovers it should be mentioned that in September 2007 he bought the art collection of the cellist Mstislav Rostropovich (1927-2007) and his wife Galina Vishnevskaya at Sotheby's in London for around 100 million dollars.

Uzbekistan: animals

Mammals

Uzbekistan's 40 mammal species include brown bears, badgers, foxes, karakul sheep, goitered gazelles, lynx, Menzibira marmots, red deer, saigan antelopes, Siberian ibex, as well as porcupines, white-clawed bears, wild boars and wolves. Even the rare snow leopards are native to the western foothills of the Tianshan.

Birds

More than 400 bird species are found in Uzbekistan, including eagles, falcons, flying dolphins, thrushes, vultures, wooden pigeons, collar busters, partridges, black storks, starlings, Turkestan owls, Turkestan starlings, lovebirds, field thrushes and the juniper grosbeak.

Reptiles

About 60 different species of reptiles live in Uzbekistan. The linked animals are shown in detail at Goruma:

Desert monitors

Lizards

Gekkos

The Gekkos belong to the genus Gekkos in the family of geckos (Gekkonidae), there are currently 58 different species. Depending on the species, the animals reach a head-trunk length between 5 to 19 cm, whereby their tail can be the same length or even longer.

Halysotter (Gloydius halis caraganus)

Adder (Vipera berus)

Levant Otter (Macroektivena lebetina)

Central Asian Cobra (Naja oxiana)

Grass snake (Natrix natrix)

Common sand-rattle otter (Echis carinatus)

Dice snake (Natrix tessellata)

Uzbekistan: plants

Since around 80% of the country are deserts and steppes, the local flora and fauna have adapted accordingly. About 2% of the country is under nature protection. Due to the steppe and desert landscape, over 3,000 different types of grass grow in Uzbekistan, but also about 80 types of trees, although less than 5% of the country is forested, Carnations, rose root, saffron, rowan berries, fireweed, wild roses. Tulips, mountain almonds, Crimean pines, as well as wild apples and pears grow here.

cotton

Cotton cultivation in Uzbekistan began in Lenin's time. Later, in the course of 1938, large irrigation canals from the Aral Sea were built here, and after the country became the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in 1942, Uzbekists became the main cotton center of the entire Soviet Union. Even today, cotton plays an important role in the country's economy. There are cotton wells, cotton symbols on the houses and the white stripe in the national flag of the country is interpreted as a symbol for cotton. In addition to silk, sisal, flax and some other parts of plants, cotton, along with wool and plastics, plays a major role on the world market.

In Uzbekistan, the flowers of the cotton plant are still mostly picked by hand, then cleaned, spun and woven into fabric. However, felt, for example, is not spun but pressed. Cotton belongs to the mallow family, of which there are around 50 different types. A bad consequence of cotton cultivation is the partial drying up of the Aral Sea and the salinisation of the remains of the lake, the water of which was used to irrigate the cotton fields.

 

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