Palestine Political system
According to topschoolsintheusa, the policy of the Palestinian Authority aims to establish an independent state for the Palestinian Arabs, but this is made more difficult by the fact that the different Palestinian groups pursue different goals with regard to the national territory. While the PLO is striving for a state in the entire West Bank as well as in Gaza, with (East) Jerusalem as its capital, the radical Islamic Hamas claims the entire area of West Palestine before 1948. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Palestine politics, and acronyms as well.
This also includes today’s territory of Israela. Furthermore, the ideas about the direction of the new state collide. If Fatah is striving for a secular state in the West Bank, Hamas wants to create an Islamist state of God in the Gaza Strip. The left-wing PFLP or DFLP favors socialist upheavals.
The official designation of the areas is:
While the Gaza Strip can be fully counted among the autonomous areas, this is not so easy in the case of the West Bank: as a result of the 1995 interim agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, it was divided into three zones – Zone A (18%), Zone B. (20%) and Zone C (62%). The Palestinian Authority and the Israeli military each have different powers in these zones. Some autonomy regulations also include Zone C, so that many of these are also included in the autonomous areas. The agreement stipulated that the areas of Zone C (with certain exceptions) would gradually be transferred to Palestinian autonomy. The Israeli settlement policy and the Israeli barrier fence, among others, make these efforts more difficult,
Observer status (English non member observer state)
On November 29, 2012, the General Assembly of the UN passed resolution 67/19. With this decision the Palestinian Autonomous Territories were granted observer status. At the United Nations, this new status is regarded as a preliminary stage to full membership. But the areas between the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan are not yet a state, even if the PLO proclaimed a state of Palestine as early as 1988 and gained recognition from around 130 states. As of October 31, 2011, that of Israel, the USAand other predominantly western states not recognized Palestine member of UNESCO. The observer status achieved in 2012 has a symbolic, not a decidedly political, character. The Palestinian Territories do not (yet) have one vote in the General Assembly. Nevertheless, the Palestinians can now hope for membership in UN sub-organizations as well as broader international recognition and the successful recourse to the International Criminal Court in The Hague.
Parliament and government
The Palestinian Legislative Council performs the functions of a parliament. The President of the Palestinian Authority is Mahmoud Abbas of Fatah. As Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority, Salam Fayyad replaced Ismail Haniyya from the Third Way party. The latter, however, does not recognize his impeachment and is now serving as head of government in the Gaza Strip with his cabinet. The Gaza Strip is now legally under the administration of the Palestinian Authority, but has been de facto controlled by the Islamist Hamas since 2007. An attempt at mediation by the Saudi royal family between Hamas and Fatah was successful in 2007 and established a national unity government under the leadership of Hamas. But in the same year there was armed conflict between the two parties.
1968 the first draft of a Palestinian constitution was created. The second followed in 1994. 2003 the youngest. But these are all just drafts. There is no such thing as a constitution in the strict sense of the word. In the drafts, which consist of Ottoman, British, Jordanian, Israeli and religious laws, the borders of a sovereign Palestinian state are laid down on the lines of June 4, 1967, and Islam as the state religion – with recognition of Christianity and all other monotheistic religions.
Structural deficiencies overshadow a functioning state. There is no uniform state structure, while administration, education, infrastructure and health care are underdeveloped. There is no army either. Corruption and paternalism are common and public safety is poor. Refugee camps, illiteracy, high child mortality, malnutrition and unemployment are just some of the problems the “state on call” is facing.
The autonomy authority must not simply enact or change laws, because Israel can prevent innovations with a veto right, especially when it comes to security concerns. The Palestinian Authority, for example, is taking advantage of (old) military regulations and (albeit rarely) still executing the death penalty. In Palestinian criminal law there is still something called blood money. This applies when relatives of victims have a say in punishment and/or reparation. In the Gaza Strip, for example, there are large clans and organizations that can exert pressure on the police and courts and influence penalties.
The national anthem of the Palestinian Autonomous Areas is called Bilādī – in English “Mein Land”. The work, composed by Ali Ismael, was adopted as a national anthem by the Palestinian National Council in 1996. Said Al Muzayin wrote the text.
D eutsche translation
|My country, my countryMy country, the country of my grandfathers
Fidai, my nation, the nation of eternity
With my determination, my fire and the volcano of my vengeance
The desire of my blood for my land and home
I have climbed the mountains and fought the wars
I have conquered the impossible and broken the fetters
Fidai, my nation, the nation of eternity
By the storm of the wind and the fire of arms
And the determination of my nation to take up the fight
Palestine is my home, Palestine is my fire,
Palestine is my revenge and the land of resistance
Fidai, my nation, the nation of eternity
By the oath in the shadow of the flag
By my country and nation and the circle of fire of pain
I will live as a Fidai (guerrilla), I will remain Fidai
And will die as Fidai until we return to our country
Fidai, my nation, the nation of eternity
Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the flag of the Palestinian Territories is also the flag of the State of Palestine. It was made in the pan-Arab colors of black, white and green, which are represented in three horizontal stripes of equal size. The Palestinian flag, which is similar to that of the Kingdom of Jordan and is almost identical to that of the Ba’ath Party, is determined from the left by a red triangle that protrudes about a quarter to the right into the flag.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Palestine.
Beit Jala (also Beit Jala)
The small Palestinian city of Beit Jala is inhabited by 12,000 mostly Christian people and belongs to Bethlehem, even if it is about two kilometers away from the city. The townscape is determined by six churches and two mosques, the most important Christian sacral building being the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas.
Beit Sahur (also Beit Sahour)
This Palestinian city is located east of Bethlehem and is 80% Christian. According to tradition, it extends to the area where, according to the New Testament, the shepherds who were the first to learn of the birth of Jesus Christ should have camped. The shepherds’ fields, which commemorate the proclamation of the Christmas message, also belong to the area of the city. In the city center is the Marienbrunnen (Bir as-Sydah), a cistern that is said to have been dug by Abraham’s son Isaac. Maria then drank from it on her flight to Egypt.
Bethlehem, house of life or house of flesh, is one of the most important cities in Christianity. The most important attraction and pilgrimage site in Jesus’ birthplace is the impressive Church of the Nativity of Christ. It was built in the 4th century by St. Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, over a grotto that was already venerated as the birthplace. In the course of the following centuries it was partially destroyed several times, rebuilt and repeatedly rebuilt. Bethlehem is shown in detail at goruma here >>>
Chan Yunis refers to the city and the refugee camp of the same name in the southern part of the Gaza Strip. Since 1994, the city of 200,000 has been under the administration of the Palestinian Authority de jure. A third of the city’s residents live in the refugee camp. The second largest city in the Gaza Strip is also one of the locations of the Al-Quds Open University.
Jenin (Arab. Dschanin)
The city in the West Bank is inhabited by about 36,000 people and referred to the adjacent refugee camp, which was founded in 1953 and is home to 12,000 refugees. For a long time Jenin was considered the stronghold of the Al-Aqsa Brigades, which are held responsible for numerous terrorist attacks. After many fights, including in 2002, it has become quiet around and in Jenin. Shops and cafes have reopened for a long time and Jenin is sometimes seen as a kind of laboratory test for a future Palestinian state. The city’s Freedom Theater and Cinema Jenin are well known.
Gaza, the largest city in the Gaza Strip, has been under the de jure administration of the Palestinian Authority since 1994. But since June 2007 it has been de facto controlled by Hamas. Around 400,000 live in Gaza City (1.4 million in the agglomeration), which is also where one of the two administrative headquarters of the autonomous authority is located. Gaza also has a seaport on the Mediterranean, but most of it cannot be used due to the Israeli blockade. The city has several universities that are attended by around 28,500 students. Along with Ramallah, Gaza is one of the two “capitals” of the Palestinian Authority.
Between 167,000 and 200,000 people live in Hebron, a city in the West Bank that is also Hebron University and a polytechnic. Hebron is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Archaeological finds show that Hebron was born in the 3rd millennium BC. Was founded. The city is divided into Hebron 1 (H1) and Hebron 2 (H2) and is crossed by several Israeli settlements, in which about 800 settlers live (H2). Unlike in other cities on the West Bank, they also live in the city center. Again and again there are therefore violent clashes between Jewish and Arab city dwellers. Everyday life was determined by restrictions. Hebron is of great importance to the Jews: the most important sight,Jerusalem he Temple Mount is the holiest place in Judaism, as the resting places of the three patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as well as their wives Sarah, Rebekah and Leah are supposed to be there. Hebron is also considered holy for Muslims and Christians. The former maintain the important Abraham Mosque there.
On the west bank of the Jordan and near the Jordanian border, Jericho, the deepest city in the world, spreads out at 250 meters below sea level. Around 25,000 people currently live in Jericho, which was the first city to be handed over to the Palestinian Authority by Israel under the Oslo Accords. Today Jericho, also mentioned in the Bible, is a border town. To the west of it rises the Mount of Temptation with the Greek Orthodox Qarantal Monastery. The Wadi Qelt extends to the west, to which the Greek Orthodox St. George Monastery also belongs, a picturesque jewel of religious importance.
Nāblus (also Nāblis)
The name Nāblus is derived from the Greek Neapolis (Eng. New Town). It is a city that is inhabited by about 100,000 people and extends between the two mountains Ibāl and Jirzim. Nablus is known for the fact that 400 members of the Samaritan people live there in addition to the Muslims and Christians. The city is also known as the seat of the An-Najah National University and as the site of Joseph’s tomb, which can be found in the immediate vicinity of the city.
This city in the south of the Gaza Strip acts as the only border crossing between Egypt and the Gaza Strip. Parts of the city are on Egyptian territory, so the demarcation line runs across the city. A refugee camp with around 96,000 residents belongs to Rafah.
Rām Allaah is located in the West Bank (about 15 km northwest of Jerusalem) and houses parts of the Palestinian government – the others belong to Gaza City. The Palestinian Legislative Council, parts of the executive branch and offices of the Palestinian West Bank Security Forces have settled in Ramallah. Ramallah has grown together with the neighboring Muslim city of Al-Bireh in recent years. On the border between the two cities, Manarah Square (Lighthouse Square) is expanding as the new city center. Ramallah is considered to be cosmopolitan and the “most western” of all Palestinian cities. Theaters, cinemas, bars, coffee houses and cultural centers such as the Darwisch Palace of Culture shape the cityscape. With the Martyr Faisal Al Husseini Stadium, the city has had a FIFA-accepted sports facility since 2008.
Squares, neighborhoods and streets
Altstadt (Old City) of Bethlehem
The Altstadt is the undisputed heart of Bethlehem. It is made up of eight districts, all of which connect to one area around the crib square. This also includes al-Fawaghreh, the only Muslim quarter in the old town. The Old City, inhabited by about 5,000 people, impresses with a multitude of towers, domes, prayer houses, red-tiled monastery roofs and much more. It is alive with its laughing children, its shops, its narrow streets and houses. Beautiful and authentic.
Al-Madbassah-Platz in Bethlehem
Al-Madbassah-Platz is part of the old town of Bethlehem and spreads out near the Lutheran Church, opposite the Salisian convent. The square is on the top of a hill that is the western gateway to the old town.
Manger Square in Bethlehem
The crib square is the heart of Bethlehem and is framed by the Armenian Convent, the Milk Grotto with its numerous souvenir shops, the Palestinian Peace Center, the Bethlehem Municipality and the imposing Omar Mosque. The name of the square refers to the manger in which Jesus is said to have been born. This belongs to the huge Church of the Nativity, which frames the square and is probably the oldest still existing church in the world. Many streets related to Jesus end in the square, such as Star Street and Nativity Street. The square, which was restored in 1998 and 1999, is now a purely pedestrian zone and serves as a meeting point for city residents with pilgrims from all over the world. It is also used for the Christmas ceremony every year.
Manarah Square in Ramallah
Manarah Square is a prominent square in the middle of Ramallah. It is characterized by the lion monument, on which five lions are supposed to represent the first five Christian families who founded the city of Ramallah after being driven out of the Jordanian Shobak. In summer 2008 the square was restored in the course of the 100th anniversary of the city administration. The metal pillar around the lion fountain has been removed.
Sternstrasse in Bethlehem
Sternstrasse is one of Bethlehem’s oldest economic axes and connects the northern part of the old town with the southern one. Most of the structures along the street are 19th century children. The large number of shops before the Second Intifada has been reduced considerably. Since 2008, however, a Thursday market has been supposed to pay homage to and stimulate the economy for a whole day. Sternstrasse, in which the Baituna al-Talhami Museum and the historic Mansour House are also located, begins at al-Manara Square, i.e. near the Nativity scene.
Al-Husseini Stadium (also Martyr Faisal Al Husseini Stadium) in Ramallah
The Martyr Faisal Al Husseini Stadium, built in 2008, is a FIFA-accepted sports facility and belongs to Ar-Ram, a suburb of a Palestinian administration Part of East Jerusalem. The stadium, which incidentally has 7,000 seats, is still counted as part of Ramallah. The sports facility was named after the Palestinian politician Faisal Husseini and serves as the home stadium for the Palestinian national team.
Old caravanserai in Chan Yuni
The old caravanserai of Chan Yuni, built during the reign of Yunis ibn Abdallah an-Nauruzi, was initially intended as a station for travelers and traders. Under the Ottomans, however, the building was expanded into a citadel and served as a military base and post office for a long time.
Banksy graffiti in Bethlehem
The graffiti paintings by the famous, albeit mysterious, artist Banksy shine on the Israeli barrier that separates Bethlehem from Jerusalem. The drawings attracted worldwide media coverage and are definitely worth a visit.
Jacir Palace (also Qasr Jacir) in Bethlehem
Of the more than thirty hotels in Bethlehem, the Qasr Jacir from 1910 is by far the most imposing and largest. It rises near the Church of the Nativity and is the oldest hotel in the city. In 2000 it was closed during an Israeli offensive, but was able to reopen in 2005. Jacir Palace extends over three floors and has, among other things, an outdoor simming pool and spa. It was named after Suleiman Jacir, the former mayor of Bethlehem, who commissioned the construction and lived in it for a while.
King David’s Fountain (Biyar Daoud) and King David’s Church in Bethlehem
On King David Street, near Manger Square, there are three large cisterns carved into the stone of Ras Eftais, an eastern part of Bethlehem. At this point, a unit of King David is said to have broken through a garrison of Philistines to bring water to the king. It is believed by some that under the adjoining David’s Church – which sits on top of a large Christian necropolis – is the place where the king was actually buried. The cisterns were discovered in 1895.
Lion Monument in Ramallah
The imposing Lion Monument in Ramallah rises in the city’s Manarah Square. Five lions are supposed to represent the first five Christian families who founded Ramallah after their expulsion from Jordan.
Abraham Mosque in Hebron
The Abraham Mosque rises next to the Machpelah cave in Hebron, described below. One of their cultural specialties is a prayer chair that is said to be a gift from the famous 12th century Saladin. This is the last remaining carved prayer chair made from a single wooden stake. A second of its kind once stood in Jerusalem’s Al-Aqsa mosque, but was victim of an arson attack in 1969. Hebron is a particularly unpleasant example of the unresolved conflict between Israel and the Palestinians
Greek Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas in Beit Jala
Of the six churches in the small Palestinian town of Beit Jala, the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas is the most important Christian sacred building.
Machpelah Cave in Hebron
The Machpelah cave in Hebron, also known as the cave of the double graves, the cave of the patriarchs or the tomb of the patriarchs, is the second holiest site in Judaism, as it is said to be the resting places of the three patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and their wives Sarah, Rebekah and Leah are. Muslims (as well as Christians) also regard this place as holy, because they too can be traced back to the progenitor Abraham. Therefore, the Abraham Mosque also belongs to the complex. Because of the location of these holy places in Hebron and therefore in the middle of the Palestinian Autonomous Territories, the tomb and city are a major point of contention in the Middle East conflict. The Machpelah Cave is now guarded by the Israeli army, while the administration is in the hands of a Waqf, an Islamic foundation.
Jamal Abdel Nasser Mosque in Ramallah
The Masjid Jamal ‘Abd an-Nasser is an imposing and the largest mosque in Ramallah. It rises in the inner-city part of Ramallah and is named after the former Arab leader and Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. In 2002 the Israeli army captured the mosque and used its minaret for sniping attacks. Katharinenkirche in Bethlehem
The Roman Catholic St. Catherine’s Church was added to the left side of the Church of the Nativity in 1881. It goes back to the Franciscans, who replaced a previous building with it, which was consecrated to St. Catherine of Alexandria. The church houses the Roman Catholic parish center of Bethlehem and is a three-aisled structure that was restored for the anniversary year 2000 and the visit of the Pope. A staircase leads to the northern part of the caves, which also contain the tombs of Saints Jerome, Paula and Eustochium. A connecting door, on the other hand, leads to the nativity grotto, but is only opened on important religious occasions. One of the most worth seeing things in the Katharinenkirche is the wooden baby Jesus, a life-size nativity figure,
Monastery of St. Elias
This old Christian Orthodox monastery was built on the ruins of a Byzantine church and is located on the outer edge of Bethlehem. It is surrounded by beautiful surroundings that give an impression of what everything might have looked like in biblical times.
Monastery of St. George
In the village of Al-Khader, near Bethlehem, there is the monastery of St. George, an important Christian saint who is called Mar Jeriess in Arabic. The monastery is said to house relics of the saint, which are said to have healing properties for nervous diseases. Indeed, in the 19th century, mental illnesses were treated with the help of relics in the monastery. Muslims also appreciate the place. You visit him in memory of the Muslim prophet Al Khider.
Monastery of St. Theodosius
Known in Arabic as Deir Dosi, the monastery is located approximately 12 km east of Bethlehem. It was founded by St. Theodosius in the late 5th century and is supposed to stand at the point where the three wise men from the Orient took a break on their way back from the homage to the newly born Jesus Christ. When Theodosius died in 529, about 400 monks are said to have lived in the monastery, all of whom were massacred by the Persians during their invasion of 614. In 1893 the monastery was renovated by the Greek Orthodox Church and is now inhabited by around twelve monks. A white-walled crypt marks the place where St. Theodosius is buried.
Qarantal Monastery near Jericho
To the west of Jericho rises the so-called Mount of Temptation. On it stands the Greek Orthodox Qarantal Monastery, a wonderful religious gem. A cable car has been leading up the mountain since 1999 and is intended to make it, together with the monastery, a tourist counterpoint to the Israeli Massada. Mostly Palestinian tourists visit the place.
Mar Saba Monastery
About 15 km from Bethlehem extends the Mar Saba Monastery, which dates back to Byzantine times. The impressive Greek Orthodox monastery looks out over the Kidron Valley and rises in the middle of the desert. It was named after St. Saba (439-532), who is said to have spent five years in complete solitude in a cave opposite the present-day monastery. His grave is in a courtyard outside the monastery, which is known for its hospitality – unless the guests are women. They are not allowed to enter the facility, but can still admire it, from the nearby two-story women’s tower.
Milk Grotto in Bethlehem
A really notable attraction in Bethlehem is the so-called Milk Grotto, a small chapel that is said to be built in the place where a few drops of milk from Mary’s breast dripped onto the wall while she was feeding the baby Jesus. These drops must have colored the cave wall white, which is now considered to be miraculous. The small chapel of the Milk Grotto has been used as a devout place by both Christians and Muslims for centuries to ask for Mary’s assistance. Many women from all over the world come to this place, press their breasts against the stone and promise themselves fertility from it. It seems to be helping, as the Franciscans can proudly demonstrate.
Omar Mosque in Bethlehem
The oldest and only mosque in Bethlehem’s old town is located on Manger Square, not far from the Church of the Nativity. It was named after Umar (Omar) ibn al-Khattab, the caliph who once conquered Jerusalem and traveled to Bethlehem in 637 to confirm the Christians’ rights there. He is also said to have prayed to Allah at the point where today’s mosque rises. The Islamic house of worship was built in 1860 and renovated in 1955 when the Jordanians took control of Bethlehem. The Greek Orthodox Church also made a financial contribution to the construction of the mosque.
Rachel’s grave (Hebrew Kever Rakhell, also Bilal bin Rabah mosque) in Bethlehem
A small, rather nondescript religious building is revered by Christians, Muslims and Jews and is located within a Muslim cemetery. It marks the place where the Old Testament Rahel, wife of ancestor Jacob (called Israel), is said to be buried and is considered the third holiest place in Judaism. The first extra-biblical references to this place as Rachel’s grave can be found in the 4th century. Today’s visitor finds two chambers – an Ottoman construction and one by Sir Moses Montefiore from 1841. The holy place is surrounded by an Israeli security system that separates the entire complex from the rest of Bethlehem. Direct entry into the grave is only possible if you arrive by Egged buses from Jerusalem.
Transfiguration Church in Ramallah
The Church of the Transfiguration, consecrated in 1852, was designed in the Byzantine style and contains sacred utensils and ancient icons, some of which date back to 1830.
Cinema Jenin in Jenin
In 2008 the Cinema Jenin cultural project was implemented. It is dedicated to rebuilding urban cinemas that were destroyed during the First Intifada in 1987. The project was founded by the German director Marcus Vetter and the Palestinians Ismail Khatib and Fakhri Hamad. It is supported on a local and international level. In addition to the German Foreign Office and the Goethe-Institut Ramallah, celebrities such as ex-Pink Floyd member Roger Waters are working to rebuild Deschenin’s cinema landscape.
Darwish Palace of Culture in Ramallah
As the only one of its kind in the Palestinian Territories, the Darwish Palace of Culture and its art rooms are located in Ramallah. It was named after the Palestinian poet Darwish, who was buried in 2008 with a “state funeral” on a hill near the Palace of Culture. The palace has an auditorium with 736 seats and conference rooms.
Cemetery in Chan Yuni
In the middle of Chan Yuni in a heavily populated area with countless small squares and avenues, the city’s cemetery extends. It is worth seeing because of the al-Qidwas family grave. These were Yasir Arafat’s paternal relatives.
The best way for travelers to come from Bethlehem to Herodium (also Herodion) is by taxi, a fortress that was once built by King Herod the Great and is located about six kilometers southeast of Bethlehem. 2000 years of history that will impress anyone who sets out to look for it.
Shepherds ‘ fields The town of Beit Sahur includes the so-called shepherds’ fields, which commemorate the announcement of the Christmas message to the shepherds. They are divided into the Roman Catholic and the Orthodox pastoral fields. While the former, also called Der es-Siar, consist of several cisterns and grottoes with a chapel in the shape of a tent, the Orthodox shepherd’s fields, called Der er-Ra’wat, also include an underground church. This is said to have consecrated the Mother of God Mary. You can also see the graves of three shepherds, who were the first to receive the Christmas message.
Joseph’s grave (Arabic Qabr Yūsuf, Hebrew Kever Yosef)
This biblical memorial on the outskirts of Nablus is one of the holiest places in Judaism, but is also venerated by Christians, Muslims and Samaritans. According to tradition, the biblical progenitor Joseph and his sons Ephraim and Manasseh were buried there.
Marienbrunnen (Bir as-Sydah) in Beit Sahur
In the city center of Beit Sahur lies the Marienbrunnen (Bir as-Sydah), a cistern that is said to have been dug by Abraham’s son Isaac. Maria then drank from it on her flight to Egypt.
This Ottoman fortress, which was built in 1620, is located near the Solomon Cisterns near Bethlehem. The fort has long served as a caravanserai, a place where caravans could rest from their long journey. Today everything is more modern – with a restaurant and a garden.
Solomon’s Cisterns (Beraik Solayman)
Three huge open cisterns from Herodian times are located about three kilometers from Bethlehem. They can absorb up to 160,000 square meters of water that comes from four underground springs. The basins are located in the wonderful Artas Valley and serve to supply Bethlehem with water. The area around the Salomon cisterns is ideal for picnics, hikes and relaxation because of its pleasant atmosphere. Close to the cisterns is Qal’at el-Burak, a castle from 1620 .
Museums and theaters
Al-Kasaba Theater in Ramallah
This cinema has existed since 1970 and was once established for playwrights. Over time it developed into a cinema and is now the only multifunctional cinema in the Palestinian Territories. It is also one of the few theaters in the region that allows Palestinian filmmakers, actors, and artists to produce and showcase their work.
Chan Yuni Archaeological Museum
The small archeological museum in Chan Yuni exhibits many mosaics found in the Gaza region.
Archaeological Museum of Hebron
The archaeological museum of Hebron houses an interesting collection of objects that cover a period stretching from the Canaanite to the Islamic period.
Baituna al-Talhami Museum or B ethlehem Folklore Museum in Bethlehem
The house, which was furnished in the 1970s, is dedicated to the culture of Bethlehem. It is one of the largest museums in the Palestinian Territories and is located on Sternstrasse. Originally it was a center for Palestinian refugees founded in 1948 by the Arab’s Women Union (AWU) under Julia Dabdoub. In 1979 the AWU established the museum. It consists of two typical Palestinian houses, one of which is one of the few authentic houses that still exist in Bethlehem. The museum displays collections of traditional household items, photographs, pieces of furniture and historical pieces that document life in Bethlehem from 1900 to 1932. Although Baituna al-Talhami is operated as a museum,
Universities and colleges
al-Aqsa University in Gaza
The Palestinian al-Aqsa University in Gaza City has seven faculties – those of the arts, sciences, education, administration, sports, the visual arts and the media.
Al-Lika ‘Center for Heritage & Religious Studies in the Holy Land in Bethlehem
The Al-Lika’ Center near Rachel’s grave is dedicated to the investigation and study of religious traditions and institutions of the people in the Holy Land. The program includes annual conferences, interfaith dialogues, Palestinian contextualized theology, the publication of the Al-Lika ‘Journal and much more.
Al-Quds Open University in Bethlehem
The university, founded in 1985, offers both face-to-face and distance learning. The language of instruction is Arabic. The university occupies a prominent place in agricultural, social and family development, as well as in applied science, technology, management, engineering and education. The college is named after the city of Jerusalem, whose Arabic name “Al-Quds” means “The Holy One”.
Jenin Arab-American University
This private university in Jenin was launched in 1996 and began teaching in 2000. The six-faculty university cooperates with California State University and Utah State University – both USA.
Islamic University of Gaza
The largest university in the Palestinian Territories is located in Gaza City. The Islamic University was founded in 1978 under the great influence of the Muslim Brotherhood. At that time it was one of the first higher education institutions in the Gaza Strip. Engineering, natural sciences, humanities and economics as well as education, Islamic law and religion are taught here.
Hebron Polytechnic University (also Palestinian Polytechnic University)
This Hebron university has existed since 1978. It offers two-year diploma courses and specializes in technical subjects. About 5,000 students are enrolled at it.
Tantur Institute in Bethlehem
Tantur is the Arabic word for “on the hill” and consisted of a chapel and a hospital from 1846 to 1964, both of which were supported by the Latin Order of St. John. After the visit of Pope Paul VI. In 1964 the Tantur area was used to set up an international ecological institute for theological research and pastoral studies. One of the goals is to promote interdenominational and intercultural dialogues through studies and research. The Tantur Institute also has a biblical garden and a large and impressive library with more than 75,000 volumes.
University in Bir Zait
The university in Bir Zait, founded in 1975, is on the way to Ramallah and currently trains around 9,000 students in seven faculties. 60% of the students are women.
University of Nablus (also an-Najah National
University) The University of Nablus has existed since 1977 and is based on an educational institution of the same name from 1918. Today the university is a non-governmental, public institution under the direction of a board of trustees. It consists of 19 faculties and currently trains around 19,000 students. Its 3,000 employees make it the largest university in the Palestinian Territories.
University of Palestine in Az-Zahra ‘
This Palestinian university is located in Az-Zahra’, south of Gaza. It was founded in 2003 under Yasser Arafat and began teaching in 2005. It has a total of three faculties.
University of Bethlehem
The University of Bethlehem is sponsored by the Catholic Church and has existed since 1973, when it was brought into being by the Holy See. It is currently attended by around 3,000 students – around 30% Christians and 70% Muslims. About half of the students are women. The university is one of the leading institutions for higher education in the West Bank and owes its existence to the visit of Pope Paul VI. in 1964. At that time, His Holiness urged the establishment of new institutions that could improve the lives of the local people. The main building of the university dates back to 1893 and houses the main administrative offices and most of the arts faculty.
Abraham oak (also oak from Mamre)
The Abraham oak rises at the place where the tradition (Gen 18.1 EU) according to Abraham should have pitched his tent. Their age is estimated to be an impressive 5000 years. A Russian Orthodox monastery belongs to the area where the oak grows, but it cannot be visited by the public.
The Dead Sea is bordered by Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories. In 1900 the area of the lake was 950 km², today it is 600 km². In contrast, the salt content of the water rose from approx. 26% to 33%. The lake gets its water from the Jordan and several other smaller tributaries. The lake does not have a runoff, it only loses its water through evaporation. This has led to the high salt content, which makes no higher life possible in the lake. Hence its name comes from. The water is said to be beneficial for the relief of certain skin diseases such as psoriasis. On the Israeli side, at the lake or in its vicinity, you will find the place where the Qumran Scrolls were found, the city of Jericho (approx. 10 km from the north bank), the Masada rock fortress and the En Gedi oasis.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Old City of Hebron
The Palestinian application for the old city of Hebron (Al-Khalil) was included in the process of the World Heritage Committee through an urgency motion. One important reason was to protect the buildings and structures made of local limestone between 1250 and 1517 during the Mameluke period with the help of UNESCO.
The Palestinians accuse the Israeli settlers in the city and the army of damaging the historical sites. The Abraham mosque also houses the grave of the progenitor Abraham, which is a sanctuary for all three monotheistic religions. In addition, according to the biblical tradition, the grave sites of Isaac, Jacob and their wives Sarah, Rebekah and Leah are supposed to be here. The buildings date from the time of Herod in the 1st century BC. and were expanded in the course of the Crusades in the 12th century. After the conquest of Hebron by Sultan Saladin (1137-193) in 1187, the church was declared a mosque.
The Jewish settler Baruch Goldstein aroused worldwide horror on February 25, 1994, when he shot 29 praying Muslims with an assault rifle in the Abraham Mosque and injured hundreds.
Nowadays Hebron has around 205,000 residents.
UNESCO complied with the request and added the Old Town of Hebron to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites at the meeting of the World Heritage Committee, which met in Krakow, Poland from July 2 to 12, 2017.
As a result, the Israeli government cut its contributions to UNESCO
Old city and city walls of Jerusalem
The old city and the city walls of Jerusalem are special in that this world cultural heritage has not been assigned to any country by UNESCO for political reasons.
Deviating from this, we therefore represent this World Heritage Site both under Israel and the Palestinian Territories.
The old town and the city walls of Jerusalem were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in July 2017 at the suggestion of Jordan.
A detailed description of the sights of Jerusalem can be found at Goruma here >>>
Battir Cultural Landscape
The Palestinian town of Battir is located 10 km southwest of Jerusalem. The landscape is mountainous. The cultivated fields in the valleys and hills are terraced and completely surrounded by stones.
Around 5 million stones were needed to build and surround the terraces. The irrigation systems are artistically designed canals that receive their water from underground springs.
This irrigation system was created around 2000 years ago. Battir receives water from a collecting basin that the residents use. The families are each assigned one day a week on which the respective family can take water from the reservoir.
The rulers built parts of the Hedjaz Railway in the 19th century and Battir received a train station. Since large parts of the arable land are on Israeli soil, the residents negotiated with Israel and received full rights of use.
In 2002 a barrier wall was to be built on the border between the West Bank and Israel, which would divide the terraced farmland. UNESCO tries to prevent this by making it a world heritage site. Israel should look for alternatives, because the Israelis who live nearby also reject the construction of the wall. Sultan’s tombs and ancient churches can be visited in the area around Battir. Old tools for viticulture can also be admired.
The Battir Cultural Landscape was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2014.
Church of the Nativity of Jesus
The Church of the Nativity of Jesus is located in Bethlehem and was the first world heritage site in Palestine with three nearby monasteries and the pilgrim path.
This church was probably built in the third century AD by Constantine the Great on the stable where Jesus is said to have been born.
In the middle of the apse one could look through a large opening into the grotto, in which one suspected Jesus was born. The church was then rebuilt in the 5th century. A staircase was created that led to the birth grotto.
In the years 1161 to 1168 the church was restored by the crusaders.
In 1717, Catholics broughta silver star in the grotto with the inscription “Hic de virgine Maria Jesus Christ natus est” – Here the Virgin Mary gave birth to Jesus Christ – which was removed several times and then re-attached.
About the use of the church there were some disputes between the different religions, all of which claim the church as their sanctuary (Greek Orthodox, Armenian, Catholic). For these reasons, the roof is not being renovated, since the individual parties cannot agree on it.
In 2002 the Israeli military laid siege to the church where armed Palestinians are holed up.
The Church of the Nativity was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2012.