Somalia: Political System
According to CANCERMATTERS.NET, Somalia is a republic. The transitional parliament consists of 245 appointed members. The Transitional National Government (TNG) tries to exercise state authority, but has only a very limited influence. She represents the country in the United Nations and in the Arab League. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Somalia politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
|Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya Somali Republic
Republic of Somalia
The national anthem of the Republic of Somalia has been the following text since 2012;
Qolobaa calankeedu, waa ceynoo,
Qolobaa calankeedu, waa ceynoo,
Innaga keenu waa, Cirkoo kale ee,
Oon caadna lahayn, ee caashaqaye
Xidigyahay cadi, waad na ciidamisee,
Xidigyahay cadi, waad na ciidamisee,
Carradaa kaligaa adow curadee
cadceeda sidee lo caan noqo ee
Cishadad dhalataad calooshayadii
Cishadad dhalataad calooshayadii
Sidii culaygii cidaad marisee
Allow ha ku celin cawoy dhaha
In the English translation
Each nation’s flag has its own color.
Each nation’s flag has its own color.
Ours is like heaven above us without the slightest sign of a cloud, which is
why we learned to love her.
Oh you white star, we are at your service
Oh you white star, we are at your service
You are superior, in every part of our country
Be known/famous oh star, like the sun
Our hearts have belonged to you
since the day you rose. Our hearts have belonged to you since the day you rose.
Purified in purity,
O Allah, don’t cloud the flag, this is what we pray for this night
The national flag (country flag) of Somalia was officially adopted on October 12, 1954. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the five-pointed star symbolizes the five areas in which Somali live. The blue base color stands for the sky and the Insular Ocean, on which Somalia is located.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Somalia.
Somalia: Known People
Iman Mohamed Abdulmajid (born 1955)
Iman Mohamed Abdulmajid is a Somali photo model from Mogadishu who also achieved fame as an actress. Star Trek VI (1991) and Heart of Darkness (1993) are some of the major films in which the model, known for short as “Iman”, appeared.
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed (born 1964)
This Somali sheikh, originally from Shabeellaha Dhexe, has been elected President of Somalia’s interim government since early 2009. The moderate Islamist was able to prevail against Nur Hassan Hussein and Maslah Mohamed Siad Barre, the son of the former dictator Siad Barre. Neither Ahmed nor the transitional government is recognized by the radical Islamist al-Shabaab, which rules large parts of southern Somalia.
Mohamed Farah Aidid (1934-1996)
Aidid is one of the best-known political leaders in Somalia’s civil war. The Somali called warlord acted as the military leader of the United Somali Congress. This was the main cause of the fall of the dictator Siad Barre in 1991. Aidid fought fierce battles with Ali Mahdi Mohammed, who also claimed the now vacant office of president, which were particularly fought in Mogadishu.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born 1969)
In 1969, Ayaan Hirsi Ali was born in Mogadishu, a Dutch politician who is very active as a women’s rights activist and critic of Islam. Their origins are of Somali origin. From 2003 to 2006 Ali was a member of the Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal for the VVD.
Mohamed Siad Barre (1910 or 1919-1995)
Barre was a Somali officer who served as President of Somalia from 1969. He had usurped this office in a military coup. If he initially undertook very popular reforms, he led to the so-called Ogaden War against Ethiopia in 1977 and 1978; Somalia lost this war. Since the 1980s, his policies have become more repressive and corrupt, resulting in Barre being fought by numerous guerrilla movements and ultimately overthrown in 1991.
Antonio Cecchi (1849-1896)
The Italian explorer Antonio Cecchi died in Mogadishu in 1896. The Africa researcher traveled extensively to and through the black continent, was the first to describe the Galla states in detail and to produce fascinating studies of different peoples and their languages. Since 1894 Cecchi has been the consul general in Zanzibar. When he was on a research expedition on the Benadir Coast, he was attacked by Somals and killed together with some companions near Mogadishu.
Aden Abdullah Osman Daar (1908-2007)
The Beledweyne-born politician served as Somalia’s first president from 1960 to 1967. Aden Adde, as Daar is also called, was considered moderate and level-headed, but under pressure from Somali nationalists, at least rhetorically, it represented an aggressive foreign policy that quickly isolated the young country. Mogadishu Airport, Aden Adde International Airport, is named after Daar.
Ayub Daud (born 1990)
The Somali soccer player Ayub Daud was born in 1990 in Mogadishu. He currently plays for the Italian record champions Juventus Turin.
Waris Dirie (born 1965)
The former mannequin and photo model works today as a writer and UN special ambassador on the subject of genital mutilation. So far she has written the novels “Desert Flower” (“Desert Flower”, 1998), “Nomads Daughter” (“Desert Dawn”, 2002) and “Children of Sorrows” (“Desert Children”, 2005). In 1999 she received the German Africa Prize in 2004 the Women’s World Award and the Oscar Romero Prize. The Vienna-based Waris Dirie Foundation “Desert Flower” maintains projects in Somalia, Senegal and Sudan.
George Nganyuo Elokobi (born 1986)
The Cameroonian football player, who was born in Mogadishu, is currently playing for English first division club Wolverhampton Wanderers.
Nuruddin Farah (born 1945)
The Somali author, born in Baidoa in 1945, is one of the most important and influential African writers of contemporary literature. In his works he deals extensively with the situation of women in today’s Somalia.
Abdisalam Abdulkadir Ibrahim (born 1991)
The Somali-Norwegian soccer player Abdisalam Abdulkadir Ibrahim was born in Mogadishu. He currently plays for Manchester City and Scunthorpe United. Ibrahim can also be proud to be the first Somali footballer to play in the Premier League.
K’naan (born 1978)
In 1978, Kaynaan Cabdi Warsame, who is now known as K’naan, was born in Mogadishu. By the way, the Somali-Canadian hip-hopper is a nephew of the late singer Magool.
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed (born 1962)
Farmajo, as M. Abdullahi Mohamed also calls himself for short, is the current Prime Minister of Somalia from Mogadishu. In his inaugural address he formulated the goals of his ministry: restoring security in Somalia and curbing corruption in the government.
Ali Mahdi Mohammed (born 1939)
The Somali politician and warlord Ali Mahdi Mohammed was proclaimed the new President of Somalia in 1991 after the overthrow of dictator Siad Barre. He came into conflict with Mohammed Farah Aidid, who claimed this office for himself. The result was the start of a devastating civil war.
Mustafa Mohamed (born 1979)
Mustafa Mohamed, a Swedish obstacle and long distance runner of Somali origins, was born in 1979 in Mogadishu. He achieved his first major successes at the 1998 Junior World Championship.
Abdisamad “SpawN” Mohamed (born 1985)
Born in the Somali capital Mogadishu, “SpawN”, a former Swedish Counter-Strike player and one of the most prominent e-athletes in the world, also came from.
Alexander Graf von Schönburg-Glauchau (born 1969)
The German journalist and writer, Alexander Graf von Schönburg-Glauchau, was born in Mogadishu in 1969. He is also head of the Count’s branch of the Schönburg family.
Yasmin Abshir Warsame (born 1976)
The Canadian supermodel was born in Mogadishu in 1976 and is now under contract with IMG Models and NEXT Model Management. Warsame was also the youngest member of the jury for Canada’s Next Top Model.
The wildlife in Somalia has been massively decimated as a result of the long civil war and the prevailing anarchy. Therefore it is currently impossible to get an overview of which animals still exist.
It is therefore questionable whether the animals shown here, for example, can still be found in the country.
A detailed and illustrated representation of the dromedary can be found here >>>
The Hunter antelope (Beatragus hunteri) – also known as Hiola – is a species of antelope from the genus Beatragus in the red hartebeest tribe (Alcelaphini) in the family of horned bearers (Bovidae). The animals have a shoulder height of about 100 cm, with an average weight of 75 kg. Their horns can be up to 70 cm long. The animals live in groups of up to 30 animals and prefer open grass plains, where they especially feed on grass. Mating takes place between March and April.
The males of the small kudu (Ammelaphus imberbis) can weigh up to 100 kg – with a shoulder height of up to 1 m. The females are slightly smaller and can weigh up to 60 kg.
Only the males have screw horns up to 90 cm long. The animals are gray-brown in color and have up to 15 narrow, white horizontal stripes on their bodies from the shoulders to the base of their tails.
There are two white spots on the neck. The legs are brown. The animals prefer acacia forests and dense undergrowth. Their diet consists of leaves and grass. They are found in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania.
A detailed description of the lesser kudu can be found here >>>
A detailed description of the black-backed jackal can be found here >>>
Somali wild donkey (Equus asinus somaliensis) is a subspecies of African wild donkey (Equus asinus) in the kind of the horse (Equus) in the horse family (Equidae).
The animals have a shoulder height between 110 to 130 cm, with a head-trunk length of about 180 to 210 cm. Their ears become over 8 inches long.
These donkeys are gray-brown in color on the back, while the belly and legs are almost whitish. Most of the time they have a dark back stripe and sometimes one or two horizontal stripes in the area of their shoulders. The legs are strikingly striped, which distinguishes the African donkey from the Asian donkey.
The donkey lives in small herds and uses kicks with its hind legs as protection from enemies. The animals feed on grasses, bushes and desert plants and are particularly active at dawn and dusk. Their young – rarely two – gives birth to the female after a gestation period of around 12 months. The occurrence of the African wild ass is limited to Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia.
Somali wild dog
The Somali wild dog (Lycaon pictus somalicus) is a subspecies of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the genus Lycaon in the family of dogs (Canidae). The wild dog family reach a head-trunk length between 70 to 110 cm with a shoulder height between 30 and 40 cm, whereby the animals in the south of Africa are larger than in the east. The black and dark brown basic color is covered with brown, reddish, yellow and white spots, whereby the coat pattern is different for each animal. Since the coat has no undercoat and is coarse and short, the bare, black skin shines through in some places. Therefore the animals appear to the layman as if they were sick.
They live together in packs that are led by an alpha pair, the female gives birth to a young after about 375 to 390 days. In packs, they usually hunt antelopes, gazelles, impalas and warthogs. The animals are diurnal and have no fixed territories. In Somalia the animal lives mainly in semi-deserts and stone deserts.
Gemsbok, Oryx gazelle
The Gemsbock (Oryx gazella) – also known as Gemsbock or Oryx gazelle – belongs to the genus of oryx antelopes (Oryx) in the subfamily Antilopinae in the horned bearer family (Bovidae).
A detailed representation of the animals can be found here >>>
monkey The southern vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) is a species of primate from the family of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecidae). It is one of the six species in which the
animals reach a head-trunk length between 40 to 60 cm, with a tail with a length up to 70 cm. Their weight is between 4 and 6 kg, with the males being larger and heavier than the females. Their fur is gray-green on top, while the underside is lighter.
Her hands, feet and face are black, but this is framed by light hair on the cheeks and forehead. Like all green monkeys, the males of the southern green monkey have bright blue testicles and a red penis.
You can find the animals from Ethiopia and Somalia through Kenya and Tanzania down to South Africa, where they prefer open forests and savannahs – but can also be found in the vicinity of humans. They are diurnal and can be found both on the ground and in trees, where they mainly spend the night. They live together in groups that can contain up to 50 animals and consist of several males, numerous females and their cubs.
The following linked reptiles are shown in detail at Goruma and also mostly illustrated.
African house snake
The African house snake (Boaedon fuliginosus) – also known as the brown house snake – is a non-poisonous snake with an average length of 95 cm.
Cross-banded tree snake The cross-banded tree snake Cross-barred Tree Snake (Dipsadoboa flavid) belongs to the genus Dipsadoboa in the family Colubridae and is a non-toxic and mostly tree-living snake. It reaches a length of about 60 to 80 cm.
Rock python (Python sebae)
Spotted house snake
The spotted house snake (Boaedon maculates) is a non-poisonous snake. The males reach a length between 60 to 80 cm, the females between 80 to 100 cm. The animals live in grass, savannah and cultural landscapes under stones and wood, in piles of rubbish, holes in the ground, termite mounds – but not in dense forests.
Marbled tree snake
The marbled tree snake (Dipsadoboa aulica) is a non-toxic tree snake. This snake becomes about 65 cm long and feeds on frogs, geckos, but also on toads, skinks and small rodents such as mice.
Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica)
Black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)
Black and white cobra (Naja melanoleuca)
The Nile crocodile is said to be found in the south of Somalia
A detailed description of Nilwarans be found in Goruma here >>>
Here you will find some of the almost 600 species of birds that Somalia is likely to be found in a little more detail and illustrated.
Southern yellow-beaked toko
The southern yellow-beaked toko (Tockus leucomelas) belongs to the genus of tokos (Tockus), in the hornbill family (Bucerotidae). The bird is up to 40 cm tall. The males weigh an average of 210 g, while the switches are lighter at 170 g. The male’s striking curved beak is between 8 and 10 cm long, while that of the female is between 6.5 and 8.5 cm long.
Her back is black with a white stripe in the middle of the back. The crown and the nape of the neck are dark gray, with a white stripe from the forehead over the eyes to the nape of the neck. The throat and front chest are white with dots of gray, so that these parts of the body look almost dashed. The lower abdomen is white. The beak is yellow but turns dark brown at the tip of the beak. The birds’ eyes are yellow, and the legs and feet are black.
Three-color gloss star
The three-color gloss star (Lamprotornis superbus) belongs to the genus of the actual gloss starlings (Lamprotornis) in the family of starlings (Sturnidae). The birds reach a size up to about 20 cm. Their plumage is glossy black on the top and blue-green on the neck and shoulders. The sides of the neck, throat and chest are shiny metallic blue. The chest band, rump and rump are white with a russet belly.
The birds are found in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda. Here he lives in the savannah, in the bush, on farmland, but also on the outskirts and even in the cities.
Helmet guinea fowl
The helm guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) is the only species of the genus Numida. It belongs to the guinea fowl family (Numididae). The helmet guinea fowl reaches a size between 55 and 65 cm – with a weight between 1 to 1.5 kg, but the females are slightly smaller and lighter. The head and neck of the birds are largely featherless, with a bluish, blue-white and reddish colored skin. The plumage is blackish-gray in color and has numerous white speckles. The animals get their name from their horn-colored helmets.
There are nine subspecies of the helmeted guinea fowl, of which the subspecies Numida meleagris somaliensis occurs in Somalia and in north-east Ethiopia. The entire species with all its subspecies can also be found in Angola, Botswana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, South Africa, Tanzania, Chad and Uganda.
The saddle stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis) belongs to the genus of large storks (Ephippiorhynchus) in the family of storks (Ciconiidae) and in the order of the striding birds (Ciconiiformes).
The animals can reach a size of 145 cm with a wingspan of up to 250 cm, whereby the females are smaller than the males. The color of the bird is black on the wings, neck and head, otherwise white. The beak, which is slightly bent upwards, is strikingly red-black-red in color.
Somali cave fish
The Somali cave fish (Phreatichthys andruzzii) is a curiosity. The animals are about 6 cm long, have no eyes or scales and are not pigmented. These fish have existed beneath the Somali desert for millions of years – in cave waters under the Bud-Bud oasis and within a radius of around 30 km in central Somalia – and in complete darkness.
Somalia is a country with relatively little rainfall and the desert is spreading more and more through deforestation of the remaining forest areas and overgrazing. In the south there is a little more water, where the two large rivers of the country are also located. Eucalyptus and mahogany trees as well as mixed wolves (euphorbias) grow here. Acacias also thrive in the local thorn bush savannah.
The mangrove areas between Kismayo and the Kenyan border have unfortunately been badly damaged.
In the north of Somalia there are isolated oases with palm trees and small bushes. Frankincense and myrrh bushes also grow on the mountain slopes. In the dry savannah there is then again a denser bush and grass growth.
The local frankincense and myrrh bushes are closely linked to Somali culture. Frankincense is an aromatic, granular substance extracted from the resin of Boswellia sacra. In the past it was used for religious ceremonies or in medicine, today it is often found in incense sticks and perfumes.
Khat shrubs (Catha edulis) are a highland plant. Chewing the fresh leaves creates a euphoric effect. Officially, this is considered illegal. Lavender also grows in parts of the country. Other plants in Somalia are:
agaves, box trees (Buxus), green juniper, blackthorn acacias (Acacia mellifera), desert lilies (Aloe Vera) and desert roses (Adenium).