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Austria

Austria Political system

Austria is a parliamentary democracy. At the head of the state is a president who is elected directly by the people every 6 years. He is the commander in chief of the armed forces and appoints the Federal Chancellor. The Federal Chancellor is the head of the executive and heads the Federal Cabinet. He determines the guidelines of politics. He is elected by the National Council. The National Council is directly elected every four years and has 183 members. The Federal Council consists of 62 members elected by the state parliaments.

Austria Political system

Following an amendment to the electoral law in 2008, the National Council's term of office is five years instead of the previous four. And the voting age has been lowered to 16 years.

The Federal Assembly formed by the National Council and the Federal Council only meets to swear in the Federal President and to decide on a declaration of war.

In contrast to the German president, the Federal President has considerably more power. For example, he can recall a government, dissolve parliament and determine new elections.

A very important difference is that it is elected directly by the people, whereas in Germany this is done by the Federal Assembly.

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Republic of Austria

Austria is made up of nine federal states, each headed by a governor who can be compared to a prime minister of a German state. More under "The nine federal states":

State Residents Area in km² Capital Residents
Vienna 1.6 million 415 Vienna 1.6 million
Lower Austria 1.6 million 19,178 St. Polten 50,000
Upper Austria 1.4 million 11,982 Linz 186,000
Styria 1.2 million 16,392 Graz 236,000
Tyrol 684,000 12,648 innsbruck 115,000
Carinthia 560,000 9,536 Klagenfurt 91,000
Salzburg 522,000 7.154 Salzburg 146,000
Vorarlberg 357,000 2,601 Bregenz 27,000
Burgenla 277,000 3,965 Eisenstadt 12,000

National anthem

The national anthem of Austria was written in 1946 by Paula von Preradovic married Molden (1887-1951) after a competition, the melody was the Freemason song "Brothers reach out to the bunch", which was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). It became the country's official anthem in 1947. According to more recent findings in musicology, however, the work does not come from Mozart, but from a lodge brother of Mozart's named Johann Baptist Holzer (1753-1818). On January 1st, 2012 the text of the national anthem was changed a little. The old version "Home are you great sons" was changed to "Home to great daughters and sons" and "Einig let in brother choirs" was changed to "Einig let in jubilation choirs". The new text:

(1) Land of mountains, land on the river,

land of fields, land of domes,

land of hammers, promising!

Home of great daughters and sons,

people, gifted for the beautiful,

famous Austria.

Well-known Austria.(2) Hotly embraced, wildly controversial,

you lie like the continent in the midst of

a strong heart.

Have carried

high consignment load since early ancestral days,

much-tested Austria.

Well-tested Austria.

(3) Courageous in the new times,

free and believing, watch us walk, happy to

work and full of hope.

United in cheering choirs,

fatherland, let swear loyalty to you,

beloved Austria.

Beloved Austria.

National anthems

In addition to the national anthem above, all 9 federal states have their own national anthems, the opening texts of which are listed below:

  • Burgenland: "Mein Heimatvolk, mein Heimatland"

    Text by Ernst Görlich, music by Peter Zauner, introduced on May 22nd, 1936.

  • Carinthia: "There where Tyrol borders on Salzburg"

    Text by Johann Thaurer von Gallenstein (4th stanza by Agnes Millonig), music by Josef von Rainer; Created in 1835, from 1911 the Carinthian national anthem.

  • Lower Austria: "O home, to love you"

    Text by Franz Karl Ginzkey, music by L. van Beethoven, introduced on November 15, 1965.

  • Upper Austria: "Hoamatgsang" ("Hoamatland, Hoamatland")

    text by Franz Stelzhamer, music by Hans Schnopfhagen, first published in 1885, since November 28, 1952 the Upper Austrian national anthem.

  • Salzburg: "Land uns'rer Väter"

    text by Anton Pichler, music by Ernst Sompek, introduced on May 24, 1928.

  • Styria: "

    Up from the Dachstein" Text by Jakob Dirnböck, music by Ludwig Carl Seydler; First published on a leaflet in 1844, Styrian national anthem since July 3rd, 1929.

  • Tyrol: Andreas-Hofer-Lied ("To Mantua in Gangs")

    text by Julius Mosen, music by Leopold Knebelsberger; probably originated around 1840, since 2.6.1948 Tyrolean national anthem.

  • Vorarlberg: "s Ländle, my home"

    Text and music by Anton Schmutzer; Composed in 1905/06, national anthem since May 10, 1949.

  • Vienna:

    currently does not have its own national anthem.

National flag

The national flag symbolizes certain historical developments or special characteristics of a country. Nowadays every country has its own national flag, which is often supplemented by numerous other flags inside. The colors of the Austrian federal flag probably go back to the "Bundesschild" of the Babenbergs from the dynasty of the Counts of Hohenberg-Wilberg in the Horn area.

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, a historically unprovable, but popular explanation is the following:

In a battle, Duke Leopold V wore a white tunic, which was tied around his stomach with a sword band. After the battle, the entire tunic was blood red, except for the part protected by the sword bandage, which had remained white.

The red-white-red flag was used as an army flag in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. In 1786 Emperor Joseph II made it a naval and national flag of war. On October 21, 1919, the flag became legally binding in Article 6 of the Law on the Form of Government.

During the reign of the National Socialists the color red-white-red was forbidden. With the law of May 1, 1945 (Coat of Arms Act), Article 2 made it the federal flag.

It says there: "The colors of the Republic of Austria are red-white-red, the flags and banners, which are carried by state authorities, institutions and institutions, show the coat of arms of the Republic in the middle field."

Austria flag and coat of arms

Austria: Known People

doctors

Note

Persons who have been awarded the Nobel Prize can be found under the heading "Nobel Prize Winners!"

  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

    neurologist and lecturer. Freud was the founder of modern psychology and psychoanalysis. He also worked with dream interpretation and hypnosis. In 1938 Freud, being Jewish, emigrated to London.

  • Paul Watzlawick (born 1921)

    psychotherapist, communication scientist and writer. Among other things, he wrote the novel "Instructions for Unhappiness".

  • Alfred Adler (1870-1937)

    psychoanalyst and student of Sigmund Freud

  • Josef Breuer (1842-1925)

    physician, physiologist, philosopher. His life forms the basis for the novel "und Nietzsche wept" by Irvin Yalom.

  • Carl Djerassi (born 1923 in Vienna - 2015)

    inventor of the "anti-baby pill"

  • Viktor Frankl (1905-1997)

    neurologist and physiologist. He is the father of logotherapy and existential analysis.

  • Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra (1816-1880)

    dermatologist. He is considered the father of modern dermatology.

  • James Israel (1846 in Vienna - 1926 in Berlin)

    urologist, surgeon. He is considered one of the fathers of kidney surgery.

  • Moritz Kaposi (1837 Kaposvor/Hungary - 1902 Vienna)

    dermatologist. He is, among other things, the namesake of Kaposi's sarcoma of the same name, which occurs particularly in AIDS sufferers.

  • Paracelsus, (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) (1493 - 1541)

    doctor, chemist and naturalist

  • Ignaz Semmelweis (1818 - 1865)

    doctor. He introduced hygiene regulations in obstetrics and thus saved numerous lives.

Architects and builders

  • Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656 - 1723)

    Baroque architect. Under his direction the first construction of Schönbrunn Palace, the Strattmann City Palace in Vienna and the Karlskirche in Vienna took place.

  • Adolf Loos (1870-1933)

    architect and architectural theorist. He is considered one of the founders of modernism in architecture.

  • Hans Hollein (born 1934)

    architect and designer. Among other things, he designed the Guggenheim Museum in Salzburg, the Museum of Modern Art in Frankfurt am Main and the construction of the Austrian Embassy in Berlin.

Visual artist

  • Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)

    painter and main exponent of Viennese Art Nouveau.

  • Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928 - 2000)

    artist and sculpture. In addition to his work as a painter, he designed and designed several buildings, including the Hundertwasser House in Vienna, the Hundertwasser environmental station in Uelzen, the Green Citadel in Magdeburg and the Ronald McDonald Hundertwasser House of McDonald's Children's Aid in Essen.

  • Oskar Kokoschka (1886 - 1980)

    painter and writer of expressionism.

  • Max Oppenheimer (1885-1954)

    Expressionist painter.

  • Egon Schiele (1890-1918)

    Expressionist painter. He is one of the most important visual artists of Viennese modernism.

Musician

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791)

    One of the most important composers of all time. His most famous works include the operas "The Magic Flute", "Così fan tutte" and "The Abduction from the Seraglio".

  • Franz Lehar (1870-1948)

    composer. Among other things, he wrote the operettas "The Merry Widow", "Paganini" and "The Land of Smiles".

  • Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951)

    composer. Among other things, he wrote the opera "Moses and Aaron" and the oratorio "A Survivor from Warsaw".

  • Johann Strauss (1825-1899)

    composer. He composed around 300 works, including "Die Fledermaus", "Der Zigeunerbaron" and the waltz "On the beautiful blue Danube", which made him world famous.

  • Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

    composer. Among other things he wrote the oratorios "The Creation" and "The Seasons".

  • Falco (1957-1998)

    singer and musician. He became known with the hit "Amadeus".

  • Rainhard Jürgen Fendrich (born 1955)

    singer. He is one of the most successful interpreters of contemporary pop music from Austria.

  • Udo Jürgens (1934-2014)

    Klagenfurt's best-known child is Udo Jürgens, born on September 30, 1934 in Klagenfurt as Udo Jürgen Bockelmann. He was a song composer, piano player and singer who shaped the German-speaking entertainment industry in his inimitable way.

    With more than 1,000 composed songs and 50 published record albums, he ranks among the world's most successful performers. In terms of music, to be somewhere between chanson, pop music and cabaret, Jürgens does not just want to entertain, but also deal with socially problematic aspects in his songs. In 1966 he won the Eurovision Contest for Austria. The Udo Jürgens musical “I've never been to New York” has been performed since 2007.

    Jürgens always remained connected to his native city of Klagenfurt. There he attended school and successfully made his first steps as a musician. He still stays regularly in Klagenfurt and is an honorary citizen of the city.

    In 2007 he received Swiss citizenship and was thus bilingual.

    Udo Jürgens died completely unexpected of a heart attack while walking in Switzerland.

  • Freddy Quinn (born 1931)

    pop singer and actor.

  • Peter Alexander (born 1926)

    singer, musician and actor.

  • André Heller (born 1947)

    musician and multimedia artist.

Natural scientist

  • Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)

    physicist and philosopher. It gained importance with the reorganization of thermodynamics.

  • Lise Meitner (1878-1968)

    nuclear physicist. She developed the theoretical explanation for the first nuclear fission, which was first achieved in 1938.

  • Johann Gregor Mendel (1822 - 1884)

    Augustinian monk and natural scientist. He discovered the rules of heredity, i.e. genetics.

Politicians and rulers

  • Maximilian I (1459-1519)

    emperor. As the last emperor, he personally led battles and fought in the turmoil. He promoted science and art and proclaimed himself emperor in Trento in 1508, which meant the end of the imperial coronation in Rome.

  • Prince Eugen (1663 - 1736)

    general and statesman. He fought successfully against the Turks in the siege of Vienna and defeated them at Zenta in 1697, which brought Austria Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slovenia.

  • Jörg Haider (1950-2008)

    Right-wing politician among Austrian politicians. Haider obtained his doctorate in law in Vienna in 1973. He became involved in politics early on and in 1986 became chairman of the "Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ)" - after internal party disputes, he resigned in 2000. From 1989 to 1991 he was governor of Carinthia, but had to resign because of controversial statements on Hitler's employment policy. After the FPÖ won the elections in Carinthia, he was elected Governor of Carinthia for the second time on April 8, 1999. In 2005, after separating from the FPÖ, he founded the “Bündnis Zukunft Österreich (BZÖ)”, which received 10.7% of the vote on September 28, 2008 in the elections to the Austrian National Council - Austria's parliament.

    Haider had a fatal accident in his company car, in which he was sitting alone, on October 11, 2008 at 1:30 a.m.

  • Maria Theresa (1717 - 1780)

    ruler. She was Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and brought the empire significant reforms.

  • Prince Metternich (1773-1859)

    statesman. At the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Metternich tried to restore the pre-revolutionary order in Europe after the victory over Napoleon, which he succeeded in doing until the revolution in 1848.

  • Franz II. Joseph Karl (1768 - 1835)

    from 1792 to 1806 the last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. He proclaimed himself Emperor of Austria as Franz I in 1804.

  • Ferdinand I (1793-1875)

    Emperor of Austria from 1835 to 1848 and King of Hungary from 1830.

  • Franz Joseph I (1830-1916)

    Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary from 1848 from 1916.

  • Charles I (1887-1922)

    from 1916 to 1918 the last Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia.

  • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)

    fascist, dictator of the Third Reich in Germany, leader of National Socialism. He planned and caused World War II and the Holocaust.

  • Engelbert Dollfuß (1892-1934)

    former German Chancellor. After parliament was shut down by emergency ordinances, he ruled in Austria alone. He was murdered by the National Socialists in 1934.

  • Adolf Schärf (1890 - 1965)

    was Federal President of Austria from 1957 to 1965.

  • Franz Jonas (1899-1974)

    was Austrian Federal President from 1965 to 1974.

  • Rudolf Kirchschläger (1915-2000)

    was Austrian Federal President from 1974 to 1986.

  • Josef Klaus (1910-2001)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1964 to 1970.

  • Bruno Kreisky (1911-1990)

    was Federal Chancellor of Austria from 1970 to 1983.

  • Fred Sinowatz (born 1929)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1983 to 1986.

  • Thomas Klestil (1932 - 2004)

    was Austrian Federal President from 1992 to 2004.

  • Franz Vranitzky (born 1937)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1986 to 1997.

  • Viktor Klima (born 1947)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1997 to 2000.

  • Wolfgang Schüssel (born 1945)

    is the Austrian Federal Chancellor.

  • Heinz Fischer (born 1938)

    politician. He has been the Austrian Federal President since 2004.

  • Jörg Haider (born 1950)

    right-wing populist politician (FPÖ). From 1989 to 1991 and again since 1999 Governor of Carinthia.

  • Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007)

    politician (ÖVP) and diplomat. Waldheim was Secretary General of the United Nations from 1972 to 1981 and Federal President of Austria from 1986 to 1992. Because of his activity as an officer in the Third Reich and his membership in the SA cavalry, it was very controversial in Austria and many other countries after these facts became known. In 1987, at the request of the World Jewish Congress (WJC), it was included in the watch list of the US Department of Justice. Waldheim was then no longer allowed to travel to the United States until his death, although he had lived there for many years.

Actors and directors

Peter Alexander (born 1926)

Singer and actor. It was particularly popular in Germany in the 50s and 60s of the last century.

Klaus Maria Brandauer (born 1944)

actor and director. Brandauer teaches as a professor at the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna. Among other things, he played Hendrik Höfgen in the piece "Mephisto" by Klaus Mann.

Paul Hörbiger (1894-1981)

actor. You could admire him in "The Third Man" from 1949, among others.

Fritz Muliar (1919 - 2009)

Muliar is considered one of the most popular actors in the country. in Austria he was admired and revered both as a folk hero and as a troublemaker. Since he had barely escaped a death sentence for "undermining military strength" in World War II, he did not allow himself to be captured by any party or institution. The German audience got to know and love him on television in 1972 in a film adaptation of Jaroslav Hašek's novel as a mischievous and supposedly somewhat limited "good soldiers Schwejk". He died on May 3, 2009, so to speak, "in his boots" - shortly after a performance in Vienna.

Max Reinhardt (1873-1943)

theater director and actor. From 1905 to 1933 he directed the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, initiated the Salzburg Festival in 1920, which he directed until 1937, and founded the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna in 1929, a directing and drama school. Reinhardt, whose real name was Goldmann, emigrated to New York in 1937 because of his Jewish descent.

Romy Schneider (1938-1982)

actress. In German-speaking countries, she became famous for her role as Sissi in three films about the Austrian Empress Elisabeth. In her adopted country of France, she celebrated great successes as an internationally renowned actress with around 60 films.

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born 1947)

Internationally known actor and politician in the USA, bodybuilder. As an actor he became known for the role of Terminator in the films of the same name. He has been the Republican governor of California since 2003. In this capacity he refused a pardon to Stanley "Tookie" Williams, who had been sentenced to death in 1981, so that he was executed on December 13, 2005 after 25 years in prison in St. Quentin, despite major protests. Williams had believably distanced himself from any violence and wrote numerous children's books, among other things.

Writer, poet

Ingeborg Bachmann (1926 - 1973)

One of the most important Austrian writers of the last century. A literary competition in Klagenfurt is awarded the Ingeborg Bachmann Prize every year.

Thomas Bernhard (1931 - 1989)

One of the most important writers of the last century.

Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929)

Writer, poet, playwright and founder of the "Salzburg Festival". He is one of the most important representatives of "Viennese Modernism" of the German-speaking "Fin de Siècle".

Peter Handke (born 1942)

Writer. He wrote, among other things, "The fear of the goalie at the penalty kick" and the script for "Der Himmel über Berlin".

Jaroslav Hašek (1883 - 1923)

Hašek is best known for his novel "The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schwejk"

Elfriede Jelinek (born 1946)

Writer. In 2004 she received the Nobel Prize for Literature. Among other things, she wrote "The Piano Player" and "Lust".

Christine Nöstlinger (born 1936)

Writer. She is best known for books for children and young people, including, for example, "We don't care about the cucumber king".

Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914)

peace fighter and writer. She founded the "Association of Friends of Peace" in Vienna and campaigned for peace and international understanding. In 1905 she received the Nobel Peace Prize.

Stefan Zweig (1881-1942)

Writer. He wrote the works "Die Baumeister der Welt", "Die Schachnovelle", "Impatience of the Heart" and "Great moments of mankind", among others. Zweig emigrated as a Jew from anti-Semitic Austria to Brazil, where he and his wife committed suicide in 1942.

Georg Trakl (1887 - 1914)

An important poet of Expressionism.

Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929)

playwright and poet. Co-founder of the Salzburg Festival. He is one of the most important representatives of Viennese modernism. Famous works are "Ein Brief", "Der Rosenkavalier" and "Der Schwierige"

Other people

  • Heinrich Harrer (born 1912.)

    Sportsman and adventurer. In 1939 he traveled to the Himalayas and was interned there by the British as a result of the Second World War. He fled to the forbidden city of Lasha in 1942, where he befriended the Dalai Lama. He did not return to Austria until 1951.

  • Andreas Hofer (1767 - 1810)

    freedom fighter. He fought against Bavarian supremacy in Tyrol and won three out of four battles against Bayern.

  • Viktor Kaplan (1876 - 1934)

    engineer and inventor of the Kaplan turbine, a water turbine with adjustable blades.

  • Ferdinand Porsche (1875 - 1951) car

    designer. His most famous car is the VW Beetle.

athlete

  • Hansi Hinterseer (born 1954)

    He was a successful ski racer in the 1970s.

  • Franz Klammer (born 1953)

    He was a successful ski racer in the 1970s. He won 25 World Cup races and was Olympic champion (gold medal) in the 1976 downhill run in Innsbruck.

  • Katherine Jessie Jean Allen (born 1970)

    triathlete. She won the gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.

  • Michaela Dorfmeister (born 1973)

    ski racer. At the 2001 Alpine World Ski Championships she won gold in the downhill and gold in the Super G at the 2003 Alpine World Ski Championships.

  • Stephan Eberharter (born 1969)

    ski racer. He won the 2001/02 Overall World Cup, gold medals at the 2002 Olympics and the 2003 World Cup.

  • Andreas Goldberger (born 1972)

    ski jumper. He won the Four Hills Tournament in 1992/93 and 1994/95 as well as the overall World Cup in 1995/96. In 1996 he won the Ski Flying World Championships and in 2001 the Olympic Games gold medal with the Austrian team.

  • Renate Götschl (born 1975)

    ski racer. She won 37 World Cup victories, the overall World Cup 2000 and two gold medals at world championships. In 1997 and 2005 she was Austrian Sportswoman of the Year.

  • Hermann Buhl (1924-1957)

    extreme mountaineer. For more information, see brief information, summary at the beginning of the text.

  • Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner (born 1970)

    extreme mountaineer. On May 1, 2008, she reached the summit of Dhaulagiri. The 8,167 m high mountain was her 11th of the total of 14 eight-thousanders she had conquered so far. On May 20, 2009 she reached the summit of the 8,516 m high Lhotse - her twelfth eight-thousander. She reached the summit of Mount Everest on May 24, 2010. But on August 6, 2010, after the fatal fall of her rope companion - the Swede Fredrik Ericsson - she had to abort the ascent of K2. It was her third unsuccessful attempt to conquer this eight-thousander, the last one for her. But in August 2011, after further previous failures, she finally managed to reach the summit. With that she conquered all eight-thousanders.

    The qualified nurse lives with her German husband and mountaineer Ralf Dujmovits in the Bühlertal in the Black Forest. In May 2010, the South Korean Oh Eun Sun was the first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.

  • Hans Krankl (born 1953), football player, is considered the hero of Cordoba/Argentina in Austria, where he scored two goals in the 1978 World Cup match against Germany in a 3-2 for Austria. Krankl was the first Austrian soccer player to put his hand on his heart while playing the Austrian national anthem. By the way, Argentina became world champion in 1978.
  • Toni Sailer (1935-2009)

    skier. He won three gold medals at the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzo: in slalom, giant slalom and downhill, which at the time also counted as world championship medals. At the 1958 World Championships in Bad Gastein, he won gold in: Downhill, giant slalom and the combination, also a silver medal in slalom. To this day, Sailer is one of the most successful ski racers.

  • Herbert Nitsch (born 1970)

    freediver. He is the person who in 2007 without air or. Oxygen device is submerged 214 m deep and thus holds the world record in this discipline.

Theologians, clergymen and philosophers

  • Gregory V (972 - 999)

    was the first German-speaking Pope.

  • Karl Raimund Popper (1902 - 1994)

    philosopher, sociologist and scientific theorist

  • Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (1889 - 1951)

    One of the most important philosophers of the 20th century. He mainly worked in the field of philosophy of language and logic.

Austria: Known People

doctors

Note

Persons who have been awarded the Nobel Prize can be found under the heading "Nobel Prize Winners!"

  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

    neurologist and lecturer. Freud was the founder of modern psychology and psychoanalysis. He also worked with dream interpretation and hypnosis. In 1938 Freud, being Jewish, emigrated to London.

  • Paul Watzlawick (born 1921)

    psychotherapist, communication scientist and writer. Among other things, he wrote the novel "Instructions for Unhappiness".

  • Alfred Adler (1870-1937)

    psychoanalyst and student of Sigmund Freud

  • Josef Breuer (1842-1925)

    physician, physiologist, philosopher. His life forms the basis for the novel "und Nietzsche wept" by Irvin Yalom.

  • Carl Djerassi (born 1923 in Vienna - 2015)

    inventor of the "anti-baby pill"

  • Viktor Frankl (1905-1997)

    neurologist and physiologist. He is the father of logotherapy and existential analysis.

  • Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra (1816-1880)

    dermatologist. He is considered the father of modern dermatology.

  • James Israel (1846 in Vienna - 1926 in Berlin)

    urologist, surgeon. He is considered one of the fathers of kidney surgery.

  • Moritz Kaposi (1837 Kaposvor/Hungary - 1902 Vienna)

    dermatologist. He is, among other things, the namesake of Kaposi's sarcoma of the same name, which occurs particularly in AIDS sufferers.

  • Paracelsus, (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) (1493 - 1541)

    doctor, chemist and naturalist

  • Ignaz Semmelweis (1818 - 1865)

    doctor. He introduced hygiene regulations in obstetrics and thus saved numerous lives.

Architects and builders

  • Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656 - 1723)

    Baroque architect. Under his direction the first construction of Schönbrunn Palace, the Strattmann City Palace in Vienna and the Karlskirche in Vienna took place.

  • Adolf Loos (1870-1933)

    architect and architectural theorist. He is considered one of the founders of modernism in architecture.

  • Hans Hollein (born 1934)

    architect and designer. Among other things, he designed the Guggenheim Museum in Salzburg, the Museum of Modern Art in Frankfurt am Main and the construction of the Austrian Embassy in Berlin.

Visual artist

  • Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)

    painter and main exponent of Viennese Art Nouveau.

  • Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928 - 2000)

    artist and sculpture. In addition to his work as a painter, he designed and designed several buildings, including the Hundertwasser House in Vienna, the Hundertwasser environmental station in Uelzen, the Green Citadel in Magdeburg and the Ronald McDonald Hundertwasser House of McDonald's Children's Aid in Essen.

  • Oskar Kokoschka (1886 - 1980)

    painter and writer of expressionism.

  • Max Oppenheimer (1885-1954)

    Expressionist painter.

  • Egon Schiele (1890-1918)

    Expressionist painter. He is one of the most important visual artists of Viennese modernism.

Musician

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791)

    One of the most important composers of all time. His most famous works include the operas "The Magic Flute", "Così fan tutte" and "The Abduction from the Seraglio".

  • Franz Lehar (1870-1948)

    composer. Among other things, he wrote the operettas "The Merry Widow", "Paganini" and "The Land of Smiles".

  • Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951)

    composer. Among other things, he wrote the opera "Moses and Aaron" and the oratorio "A Survivor from Warsaw".

  • Johann Strauss (1825-1899)

    composer. He composed around 300 works, including "Die Fledermaus", "Der Zigeunerbaron" and the waltz "On the beautiful blue Danube", which made him world famous.

  • Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

    composer. Among other things he wrote the oratorios "The Creation" and "The Seasons".

  • Falco (1957-1998)

    singer and musician. He became known with the hit "Amadeus".

  • Rainhard Jürgen Fendrich (born 1955)

    singer. He is one of the most successful interpreters of contemporary pop music from Austria.

  • Udo Jürgens (1934-2014)

    Klagenfurt's best-known child is Udo Jürgens, born on September 30, 1934 in Klagenfurt as Udo Jürgen Bockelmann. He was a song composer, piano player and singer who shaped the German-speaking entertainment industry in his inimitable way.

    With more than 1,000 composed songs and 50 published record albums, he ranks among the world's most successful performers. In terms of music, to be somewhere between chanson, pop music and cabaret, Jürgens does not just want to entertain, but also deal with socially problematic aspects in his songs. In 1966 he won the Eurovision Contest for Austria. The Udo Jürgens musical “I've never been to New York” has been performed since 2007.

    Jürgens always remained connected to his native city of Klagenfurt. There he attended school and successfully made his first steps as a musician. He still stays regularly in Klagenfurt and is an honorary citizen of the city.

    In 2007 he received Swiss citizenship and was thus bilingual.

    Udo Jürgens died completely unexpected of a heart attack while walking in Switzerland.

  • Freddy Quinn (born 1931)

    pop singer and actor.

  • Peter Alexander (born 1926)

    singer, musician and actor.

  • André Heller (born 1947)

    musician and multimedia artist.

Natural scientist

  • Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)

    physicist and philosopher. It gained importance with the reorganization of thermodynamics.

  • Lise Meitner (1878-1968)

    nuclear physicist. She developed the theoretical explanation for the first nuclear fission, which was first achieved in 1938.

  • Johann Gregor Mendel (1822 - 1884)

    Augustinian monk and natural scientist. He discovered the rules of heredity, i.e. genetics.

Politicians and rulers

  • Maximilian I (1459-1519)

    emperor. As the last emperor, he personally led battles and fought in the turmoil. He promoted science and art and proclaimed himself emperor in Trento in 1508, which meant the end of the imperial coronation in Rome.

  • Prince Eugen (1663 - 1736)

    general and statesman. He fought successfully against the Turks in the siege of Vienna and defeated them at Zenta in 1697, which brought Austria Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slovenia.

  • Jörg Haider (1950-2008)

    Right-wing politician among Austrian politicians. Haider obtained his doctorate in law in Vienna in 1973. He became involved in politics early on and in 1986 became chairman of the "Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ)" - after internal party disputes, he resigned in 2000. From 1989 to 1991 he was governor of Carinthia, but had to resign because of controversial statements on Hitler's employment policy. After the FPÖ won the elections in Carinthia, he was elected Governor of Carinthia for the second time on April 8, 1999. In 2005, after separating from the FPÖ, he founded the “Bündnis Zukunft Österreich (BZÖ)”, which received 10.7% of the vote on September 28, 2008 in the elections to the Austrian National Council - Austria's parliament.

    Haider had a fatal accident in his company car, in which he was sitting alone, on October 11, 2008 at 1:30 a.m.

  • Maria Theresa (1717 - 1780)

    ruler. She was Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and brought the empire significant reforms.

  • Prince Metternich (1773-1859)

    statesman. At the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Metternich tried to restore the pre-revolutionary order in Europe after the victory over Napoleon, which he succeeded in doing until the revolution in 1848.

  • Franz II. Joseph Karl (1768 - 1835)

    from 1792 to 1806 the last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. He proclaimed himself Emperor of Austria as Franz I in 1804.

  • Ferdinand I (1793-1875)

    Emperor of Austria from 1835 to 1848 and King of Hungary from 1830.

  • Franz Joseph I (1830-1916)

    Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary from 1848 from 1916.

  • Charles I (1887-1922)

    from 1916 to 1918 the last Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia.

  • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)

    fascist, dictator of the Third Reich in Germany, leader of National Socialism. He planned and caused World War II and the Holocaust.

  • Engelbert Dollfuß (1892-1934)

    former German Chancellor. After parliament was shut down by emergency ordinances, he ruled in Austria alone. He was murdered by the National Socialists in 1934.

  • Adolf Schärf (1890 - 1965)

    was Federal President of Austria from 1957 to 1965.

  • Franz Jonas (1899-1974)

    was Austrian Federal President from 1965 to 1974.

  • Rudolf Kirchschläger (1915-2000)

    was Austrian Federal President from 1974 to 1986.

  • Josef Klaus (1910-2001)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1964 to 1970.

  • Bruno Kreisky (1911-1990)

    was Federal Chancellor of Austria from 1970 to 1983.

  • Fred Sinowatz (born 1929)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1983 to 1986.

  • Thomas Klestil (1932 - 2004)

    was Austrian Federal President from 1992 to 2004.

  • Franz Vranitzky (born 1937)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1986 to 1997.

  • Viktor Klima (born 1947)

    was Austrian Chancellor from 1997 to 2000.

  • Wolfgang Schüssel (born 1945)

    is the Austrian Federal Chancellor.

  • Heinz Fischer (born 1938)

    politician. He has been the Austrian Federal President since 2004.

  • Jörg Haider (born 1950)

    right-wing populist politician (FPÖ). From 1989 to 1991 and again since 1999 Governor of Carinthia.

  • Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007)

    politician (ÖVP) and diplomat. Waldheim was Secretary General of the United Nations from 1972 to 1981 and Federal President of Austria from 1986 to 1992. Because of his activity as an officer in the Third Reich and his membership in the SA cavalry, it was very controversial in Austria and many other countries after these facts became known. In 1987, at the request of the World Jewish Congress (WJC), it was included in the watch list of the US Department of Justice. Waldheim was then no longer allowed to travel to the United States until his death, although he had lived there for many years.

Actors and directors

Peter Alexander (born 1926)

Singer and actor. It was particularly popular in Germany in the 50s and 60s of the last century.

Klaus Maria Brandauer (born 1944)

actor and director. Brandauer teaches as a professor at the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna. Among other things, he played Hendrik Höfgen in the piece "Mephisto" by Klaus Mann.

Paul Hörbiger (1894-1981)

actor. You could admire him in "The Third Man" from 1949, among others.

Fritz Muliar (1919 - 2009)

Muliar is considered one of the most popular actors in the country. in Austria he was admired and revered both as a folk hero and as a troublemaker. Since he had barely escaped a death sentence for "undermining military strength" in World War II, he did not allow himself to be captured by any party or institution. The German audience got to know and love him on television in 1972 in a film adaptation of Jaroslav Hašek's novel as a mischievous and supposedly somewhat limited "good soldiers Schwejk". He died on May 3, 2009, so to speak, "in his boots" - shortly after a performance in Vienna.

Max Reinhardt (1873-1943)

theater director and actor. From 1905 to 1933 he directed the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, initiated the Salzburg Festival in 1920, which he directed until 1937, and founded the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna in 1929, a directing and drama school. Reinhardt, whose real name was Goldmann, emigrated to New York in 1937 because of his Jewish descent.

Romy Schneider (1938-1982)

actress. In German-speaking countries, she became famous for her role as Sissi in three films about the Austrian Empress Elisabeth. In her adopted country of France, she celebrated great successes as an internationally renowned actress with around 60 films.

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born 1947)

Internationally known actor and politician in the USA, bodybuilder. As an actor he became known for the role of Terminator in the films of the same name. He has been the Republican governor of California since 2003. In this capacity he refused a pardon to Stanley "Tookie" Williams, who had been sentenced to death in 1981, so that he was executed on December 13, 2005 after 25 years in prison in St. Quentin, despite major protests. Williams had believably distanced himself from any violence and wrote numerous children's books, among other things.

Writer, poet

Ingeborg Bachmann (1926 - 1973)

One of the most important Austrian writers of the last century. A literary competition in Klagenfurt is awarded the Ingeborg Bachmann Prize every year.

Thomas Bernhard (1931 - 1989)

One of the most important writers of the last century.

Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929)

Writer, poet, playwright and founder of the "Salzburg Festival". He is one of the most important representatives of "Viennese Modernism" of the German-speaking "Fin de Siècle".

Peter Handke (born 1942)

Writer. He wrote, among other things, "The fear of the goalie at the penalty kick" and the script for "Der Himmel über Berlin".

Jaroslav Hašek (1883 - 1923)

Hašek is best known for his novel "The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schwejk"

Elfriede Jelinek (born 1946)

Writer. In 2004 she received the Nobel Prize for Literature. Among other things, she wrote "The Piano Player" and "Lust".

Christine Nöstlinger (born 1936)

Writer. She is best known for books for children and young people, including, for example, "We don't care about the cucumber king".

Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914)

peace fighter and writer. She founded the "Association of Friends of Peace" in Vienna and campaigned for peace and international understanding. In 1905 she received the Nobel Peace Prize.

Stefan Zweig (1881-1942)

Writer. He wrote the works "Die Baumeister der Welt", "Die Schachnovelle", "Impatience of the Heart" and "Great moments of mankind", among others. Zweig emigrated as a Jew from anti-Semitic Austria to Brazil, where he and his wife committed suicide in 1942.

Georg Trakl (1887 - 1914)

An important poet of Expressionism.

Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929)

playwright and poet. Co-founder of the Salzburg Festival. He is one of the most important representatives of Viennese modernism. Famous works are "Ein Brief", "Der Rosenkavalier" and "Der Schwierige"

Other people

  • Heinrich Harrer (born 1912.)

    Sportsman and adventurer. In 1939 he traveled to the Himalayas and was interned there by the British as a result of the Second World War. He fled to the forbidden city of Lasha in 1942, where he befriended the Dalai Lama. He did not return to Austria until 1951.

  • Andreas Hofer (1767 - 1810)

    freedom fighter. He fought against Bavarian supremacy in Tyrol and won three out of four battles against Bayern.

  • Viktor Kaplan (1876 - 1934)

    engineer and inventor of the Kaplan turbine, a water turbine with adjustable blades.

  • Ferdinand Porsche (1875 - 1951) car

    designer. His most famous car is the VW Beetle.

athlete

  • Hansi Hinterseer (born 1954)

    He was a successful ski racer in the 1970s.

  • Franz Klammer (born 1953)

    He was a successful ski racer in the 1970s. He won 25 World Cup races and was Olympic champion (gold medal) in the 1976 downhill run in Innsbruck.

  • Katherine Jessie Jean Allen (born 1970)

    triathlete. She won the gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.

  • Michaela Dorfmeister (born 1973)

    ski racer. At the 2001 Alpine World Ski Championships she won gold in the downhill and gold in the Super G at the 2003 Alpine World Ski Championships.

  • Stephan Eberharter (born 1969)

    ski racer. He won the 2001/02 Overall World Cup, gold medals at the 2002 Olympics and the 2003 World Cup.

  • Andreas Goldberger (born 1972)

    ski jumper. He won the Four Hills Tournament in 1992/93 and 1994/95 as well as the overall World Cup in 1995/96. In 1996 he won the Ski Flying World Championships and in 2001 the Olympic Games gold medal with the Austrian team.

  • Renate Götschl (born 1975)

    ski racer. She won 37 World Cup victories, the overall World Cup 2000 and two gold medals at world championships. In 1997 and 2005 she was Austrian Sportswoman of the Year.

  • Hermann Buhl (1924-1957)

    extreme mountaineer. For more information, see brief information, summary at the beginning of the text.

  • Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner (born 1970)

    extreme mountaineer. On May 1, 2008, she reached the summit of Dhaulagiri. The 8,167 m high mountain was her 11th of the total of 14 eight-thousanders she had conquered so far. On May 20, 2009 she reached the summit of the 8,516 m high Lhotse - her twelfth eight-thousander. She reached the summit of Mount Everest on May 24, 2010. But on August 6, 2010, after the fatal fall of her rope companion - the Swede Fredrik Ericsson - she had to abort the ascent of K2. It was her third unsuccessful attempt to conquer this eight-thousander, the last one for her. But in August 2011, after further previous failures, she finally managed to reach the summit. With that she conquered all eight-thousanders.

    The qualified nurse lives with her German husband and mountaineer Ralf Dujmovits in the Bühlertal in the Black Forest. In May 2010, the South Korean Oh Eun Sun was the first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.

  • Hans Krankl (born 1953), football player, is considered the hero of Cordoba/Argentina in Austria, where he scored two goals in the 1978 World Cup match against Germany in a 3-2 for Austria. Krankl was the first Austrian soccer player to put his hand on his heart while playing the Austrian national anthem. By the way, Argentina became world champion in 1978.
  • Toni Sailer (1935-2009)

    skier. He won three gold medals at the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzo: in slalom, giant slalom and downhill, which at the time also counted as world championship medals. At the 1958 World Championships in Bad Gastein, he won gold in: Downhill, giant slalom and the combination, also a silver medal in slalom. To this day, Sailer is one of the most successful ski racers.

  • Herbert Nitsch (born 1970)

    freediver. He is the person who in 2007 without air or. Oxygen device is submerged 214 m deep and thus holds the world record in this discipline.

Theologians, clergymen and philosophers

  • Gregory V (972 - 999)

    was the first German-speaking Pope.

  • Karl Raimund Popper (1902 - 1994)

    philosopher, sociologist and scientific theorist

  • Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (1889 - 1951)

    One of the most important philosophers of the 20th century. He mainly worked in the field of philosophy of language and logic.

Austria: animals

Mammals

Mammals include roe deer, stags, hares, foxes, badgers and martens.

But also lynx and occasionally wolves and brown bears can be found.

There are numerous alpine ibex and marmots in the Alps.

The fallow deer with its characteristic shovel-like and multi-ended antlers is common, which distinguishes it from other deer. It is smaller than the red deer.

The most common alpine animal is the goat-like chamois. It belongs to the cloven-hoofed family and lives at an altitude of 800-2500 m.

Characteristic are their relatively thin, 30 cm long and backward curved hook-shaped horns. Their fur, which is reddish-brown in summer and darker in winter, forms a standing mane from the neck to the croup in front of the tail, from which the hair for the "chamois's beard" is plucked.

Reptiles (without snakes)

There are numerous species of lizards in Austria. They include the sand lizard, the green lizard, the Croatian mountain lizard, the wall lizard, the mountain lizard and, in the Alps, the forest lizard and the poisonous fire salamander.

It belongs to the tailed amphibians, becomes between 15 and 20 cm tall and is clearly recognizable by its black color with yellow or reddish spots.

He prefers to stay in damp mixed deciduous and coniferous forests or pure beech forests near rivers. Its diet consists of snails, earthworms, spiders and butterflies. It is one of the endangered species.

The European pond turtle, active during the day and at night, is widespread, but its population is in decline and therefore endangered. You can find them in bodies of water with a good population of aquatic plants and a muddy bottom, but you will rarely see them as these animals are very shy.

The flat and oval shell can grow up to 36 cm long, and this turtle has a fairly long tail. Their diet is predominantly animal. It consists of fish, newts, tadpoles, crabs and water snails.

In winter, the turtle buries itself in the bottom mud and bridges the cold season in a frozen state.

The legless western slow worm (Anguis fragilis) is a bit like a very large earthworm. As a lizard it belongs to the reptiles but is not a snake.

Snakes, poisonous animals

- Äskulapnatter

- grass snake

- Coronella

- Dice Snake

Venomous snakes

The following four types of venomous snakes live in Austria:

- aspis viper

- adder

- sand otter, European horned viper

- meadow viper - Probably extinct in Austria

Other poisonous animals

The fire salamander secretes a poison when it feels threatened. This poison must not come into contact with mucous membranes, open wounds or saliva, otherwise severe symptoms of poisoning can occur. The garden spider is also poisonous. But even if their bite penetrates human skin, which is rarely the case, the poison is relatively harmless to humans. However, the bite is quite painful.

Birds

In the reed belt of the Neusiedlersee there is a bird paradise with herons, spoonbills, avocets and wild geese. Other bird species are the pheasant, the partridge and in the Alps you can observe the widespread, sociable and often trusting alpine chough as well as the rock ptarmigan, the black grouse and the capercaillie.

And of course a large number of various songbirds.

The "King of the Alps" is the golden eagle, which with a body length of 75 - 90 cm can reach a wingspan of up to 2 m. In the order of birds of prey, it belongs to the eagle family. The adult birds have a uniformly dark brown fur, with only the crown and the neck being golden yellow. The young birds have a large white field at the base of the hand wings and a white tail with a black band at the end.

It feeds on smaller mammals such as marmots and mountain hares, but its main source of food is chamois and fawns. Other birds such as grouse are also on the menu. It was almost wiped out decades ago, but it is now recovering very slowly. Falcons, hawks, buzzards and owls also live in Austria.

insects

In principle, the same insects occur in Austria as in Germany.

Mosquitoes, flies, wasps, bees, hornets, bumblebees and dragonflies live here

There are, among other things, the path and wood ant, the weevil and the garden spider. This belongs to the family of orb web spiders and is widespread throughout the Alpine region. The color varies between light brown and black and the hallmark is the always present clear white cross on the abdomen. The females are about 20 mm larger than the males, who only grow to about 11 mm.

The garden spider lives mainly on the edges of forests, in hedges and in gardens. Their food consists of flies and flies. The best known species of the garden spider is the garden spider. Ticks are to be expected

in the forests, whose bites can lead to Lyme disease or early summer meningoencephalitis (TBE).

Austria: plants

Trees

Austria is considered to be the most forested country in Europe. The local deciduous forests of oak and beech, the mixed forests of spruce and beech are characteristic.

In the higher regions you can find not only spruce but also larch and stone pine. Common trees in the country's Alpine regions are also the mountain pine, mountain ash and red beech.

Alpine flora

The strictly protected edelweiss, gentian, alpine carnation, arnica, alpine shrub and heather are typical of the alpine flora. The snow rose, the cowslip, the buttercup, the dandelion, the thistle and the silver thistle, the monkshood and the Turk's cap lily are also well represented. It becomes 30 - 100 cm high and blooms with cloudy pink flowers from June to August. It is named after the rolled back petals, which are reminiscent of a turban. They are found in species-rich, sunny forest communities on limestone and in raised alpine meadows.

Crops

In addition to the well-known cereal plants such as wheat and barley, the useful plants also include corn, rapeseed and soy.

Wine is also grown increasingly and has an excellent reputation in some cases.

You can also find fruit trees and strawberry fields in the country.

Medicinal plants

The gentian is well known as a medicinal plant, but only the yellow gentian. It grows up to 1 m high and has golden-yellow flowers.

Only the roots of the herbaceous mountain plant that grows in the Alps at an altitude of 1,000 to 2,000 m are used as a medicine.

As it stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, it is used, among other things, for loss of appetite, indigestion and flatulence.

A widespread medicinal plant is arnica, which bears the popular name "Bergwohlverleih". It belongs to the sunflower family and grows above 800 m. Its flowers and the rhizome are used for homeopathic tinctures. The ingredients have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Arnica is therefore used for bruises, joint inflammation, rheumatism, varicose veins, heart problems, bruises and sprains. The plant is a very powerful remedy, so it is advisable to use it only externally and only very diluted, as otherwise skin irritation can result.

Heather, also known as heather, and cowslip are two other well-known medicinal plants. The flowers and herb tips of the heather, a dwarf shrub that rarely exceeds 80 cm high, have a blood-purifying, diuretic and expectorant effect. The flowers of the cowslip, which grows in sunny meadows and in coniferous forests, are used for coughs and colds.

The poisonous red foxglove, like the poisonous lily of the valley, strengthens the heart with the right dose.

Both therefore serve as remedies for heart disease.

Poisonous plants

In the sunny locations of the Alps you can find the mountain daphne from the daphne family. It is a shrub that can grow up to 50 cm high and has white flowers that smell of vanilla. The toxic substances in the seeds are very irritating to the skin. Long-term skin contact can cause necrosis.

The yew, an evergreen conifer that can grow up to 20 m high, is highly poisonous. It still grows sporadically in mixed deciduous forests, but is also often planted in parks and gardens. Overall, the yew has become rare, as it used to be almost extinct because of its wood. In addition to the needles, the seeds are also poisonous, as they mature in the first green, then red seed coat, which is non-toxic itself. The numerous symptoms of intoxication are vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, abdominal pain, dilated pupils and even unconsciousness. Death from cardiac arrest often occurs after 1.5 hours.

The red foxglove from the figwort family blooms from June to August and becomes 30-150 cm high.

It grows in clearings, clearcuts and on the edges of forests. The red (sometimes white) flowers are bell-shaped and about 5 cm long. On this plant, it is the leaves that are particularly poisonous. In addition to nausea and vomiting, the symptoms of poisoning are also visual disturbances, a reduced pulse rate when blood pressure rises, which leads to cardiac arrhythmias and death from cardiac arrest. In a lower dose, the thimble also has a healing effect.

The privet, also known as rowan berry or devil berry, belongs to the olive family. It is a densely bushy shrub that is 1–4 m high and is often found in sparse deciduous forests. The white flowers are small and have an unpleasant smell.

The pea-sized berries are spherical and shiny black. Both these as well as the leaves and the bark are considered to be slightly poisonous. Contact leads to irritation of the skin; oral ingestion leads to vomiting, diarrhea, severe gastrointestinal irritation, cramps and - less often - to circulatory paralysis.

Another poisonous plant is the lily of the valley, which grows in deciduous forests and belongs to the lily family and is 15-25 cm high. All parts of the plant are poisonous, but especially the red berries. One should make sure that the flower water also absorbs the poisons. Slight poisoning results in vomiting, diarrhea, visual disturbances and a feeling of dizziness. Serious poisoning, which is rare because the body does not absorb the poison well, leads to cardiac arrhythmias and ultimately death from cardiac arrest. Like the foxglove, the lily of the valley also has a medicinal effect when given the appropriate dose.

Austria: Nobel Prize Winner

The Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize is considered to be the highest honor given to scientists, writers and peacemakers (individuals, politicians or organizations).

The award goes back to the Swedish chemist, inventor and industrialist Alfred Nobel (1833–1896).

Nobel had stipulated in his will that a foundation should be established with his fortune, the interest profits of which should be given in the form of a prize to the people who had rendered the greatest benefit to mankind in the past year.

The money should be divided equally for special achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine as well as literature and for peace efforts.

The Nobel Foundation was established - following Nobel's request - on June 29, 1900 and in 1901 the first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901.

The winners will be announced in October, while the official award ceremony will take place on December 10 - the anniversary of Nobel's death - with the exception of the Nobel Peace Prize in Stockholm.

The Nobel Peace Prize is presented in Oslo.

In 1866 Alfred Nobel developed the explosive "dynamite". There is evidence that his conscience, because of the use of explosives as a weapon of war, led him to write his will to establish the Nobel Foundation.

However, there is no reliable evidence for this interpretation.

Note

The Nobel Prize winners who were Austrian citizens at the time they were awarded are listed here.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Award winner Year of award Reason for the award
Max Ferdinand Perutz

(1914-2002)

1962 For his work on radiographic structural studies of proteins.
Richard Johann Kuhn

(1900-1967)

1938 The German-Austrian Kuhn received the Nobel Prize in 1938 for his research on carotenoids and vitamins
Fritz Pregl

(1869–1930)

1923 For the microanalysis of organic substances he developed

Nobel Peace Prize

Award winner Year of award Reason for the award
Alfred Hermann Fried

(1864–1921)

1911 Founder of the magazine "Die Waffen Nieder"

(later: Die Friedens-Warte)

Bertha von Suttner

(1843–1914)

(born in Prague)

1905 Her life's work, including the novel Die Waffen Down !

, probably inspired Nobel to donate the Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel Price for physics

Award winner Year of award Reason for the award
Wolfgang Pauli

(1900-1958) s

1945 For the discovery of the principle of

exclusion known as the Pauli principle

Victor Franz Hess

(1883–1964)

1936 For the discovery of cosmic rays
Erwin Schrödinger

(1887–1961)

1933 For the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory

(further development of quantum mechanics)

Nobel Prize in literature

Award winner Year of award Reason for the award
Peter Handke

(born 1942)

2019 Handke received the award for his influential work, which explored the fringes and the specifics of human experience with linguistic ingenuity
Elfriede Jelinek

(born 1946)

2004 For the musical flow of voices and dissenting voices

in novels and dramas that

reveal the absurdity and compelling power of social clichés with a unique linguistic passion

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

Award winner Year of award Reason for the award
Eric Kandel

(born 1929)

2010 Together with the Swedish Arvid Carlsson and the American Paul Greengard for their discoveries regarding signal transmission in the nervous system.
Konrad Lorenz

(1903–1989)

1973 Together with the German-Austrian Karl von Frisch and the British Nikolaas Tinbergen. For your discoveries about the organization and triggering

of individual and social behavior patterns

Otto Loewi

(1873–1961)

1936 Together with the Briton Henry Hallett Dale

for their discoveries in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses. (Dalesches Principle)

Karl Landsteiner

(1868–1943)

1930 For the discovery of human blood groups
Julius Wagner-Jauregg

(1857–1940)

1927 For the discovery of the therapeutic importance of malaria vaccination in the treatment of progressive paralysis
Robert Bárány

(1876–1936)

1914

(awarded in 1915)

For his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus

Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics

The Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics does not go back directly to Alfred Nobel's will, but was donated by the Swedish Reichsbank in 1968 on the basis of the Nobel Prizes on the occasion of its 300th anniversary. The prize was awarded for the first time in 1969 to the Norwegian Ragnar AK Frisch (1895–1973) and the Dutchman Jan Tinbergen (1903–1994).

So far no Austrian has received this award.

Award winner Year of award Reason for the award
Friedrich August von Hayek

(1899-1992)

1974 For his services to the free market economy

 

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