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Venezuela

Venezuela: Political System

Venezuela is a federal republic with a multi-party system and 23 states. The 1999 constitution stipulates that the state is headed by a president who is elected directly by the people every 6 years. Re-election is only possible one more time. Parliament is a unicameral system. The Senate was abolished in 1999. The Chamber of Deputies with 189 members exercises the law. The states are not directly involved. Members are elected every five years in a free, equal and secret ballot for a maximum of three legislative periods. The President appoints the Vice-President and the ministers of his government. The president can dissolve parliament and force new elections, or he can be recalled by means of a referendum.

Venezuela: Political System

Hugo Rafael Chavez Frías (born 1954) was President of the country from February 2, 1999 until his death on March 5, 2013. He was one of the left-wing socialist nationalists and had reshaped the country considerably since taking office. He won his first election on December 6, 1998 with 56% of the vote and the second on July 30, 2000 with 60%. On August 15, 2004, there was a referendum on his impeachment. Around 40.7% voted in favor and around 59.35 against - with a participation of around 70%. In the third election in 2006 he was elected president for the third time with around 62.8%. The last referendum took place on February 15, 2009. In the course of this referendum, around 54% of the electorate voted in favor of changing the constitution so that he and other elected officials could be re-elected as often as they wanted - a majority had rejected this in 2007.

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

República Bolivariana de Venezuela

National anthem

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national anthem of Venezuela was written by Vicente Salias (1776 - 1814) in 1810 and set to music by Juan Jose Landacta in the same year. Both were executed as insurgents in 1814. The anthem was endorsed as the country's official anthem in 1881 by later President Antonio Guzmán Blanco.

Venezuela flag and coat of arms

In spanish language

Gloria al bravo pueblo

que el yugo lanzó,

la ley respetando

la virtud y honor. (Refrain)Abajo cadenas!

abajo cadenas!

gritaba el señor

gritaba el señor;

y el pobre en su choza

libertad pidió.

A este santo nombre

tembló de pavor

el vil egoismo

que otra vez triunfó.

A este santo nombre

a este santo nombre

temblo de pavor

el vil egoismo

que otra vez triunfó

el vil egoismo

que otra vez triunfó.refrainGritemos con brio

gritemos con brio

Muera la opresión!

Muera la opresión!

Compatriotas fell

la fuerza es la union

y desde el Empireo

el supremo autor

un sublime aliento

al pueblo infundió

y desde el Empireo

y desde el Empireo

el supremo autor

un sublime aliento

al pueblo infundió

un sublime aliento

al pueblo infundió.

refrain

Unida con lazos,

unida con lazos,

que el cielo formo,

que el cielo formo,

la America toda

existe en Nación;

y si el despotismo

levanta la voz

seguid el ejemplo

que Caracas dió

y si el despotismo

y si el despotismo

levanta la voz

seguid el ejemplo

que Caracas dio

seguid el ejemplo

que Caracas dio.

refrain

The English translation of the refrain

Glory to the brave nation that

shook off the yoke,

that

respects law and virtue and honor.

Venezuela: Known People

Politicians and activists

Ignacio Andrade (1839-1925)

politician, officer. Ignacio Andrade was born in Mérida in 1839 as the son of a general and also decided to pursue military training. First he acted as President of Falcón, and later as State Senator. As President of Venezuela, he also served from 1898-1899, even if he had to defend himself against much resistance. Andrade died in Macuto in 1925 after he had been reinstated as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Interior of Venezuela.

Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi (1799-1866)

fighter in the war of independence against the Spaniards. Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi was born in Caracas in 1799 as the daughter of a Latin professor. Between 1814 and 1818 she was held in various prisons in Venezuela and later transferred to Spain. But she managed to escape to America. De Arismendi, who was married to General Juan Bautista Arismendi, finally died in 1866 in her native city. Her likeness is shown on a Venezuelan banknote.

Antonio Guzmán Blanco (1829-1899)

The soldier, lawyer and politician was President of Venezuela three times. Antonio Guzmán Blanco was born in Caracas in 1829 to an aristocratic family and studied law. Afterwards he devoted himself to diplomatic affairs in the USA. He went down in Latin American history as the dictator of Venezuela during the years 1870-1888. He was said to have corruption and an excessive tendency towards wealth. Blanco died in Paris in 1899.

Simón Bolívar (1783-1830)

The independence fighter with the nickname "El Libertador" (The Liberator) is the national hero for many South American countries. His struggle, inspired by the French Revolution, led to the independence of today's states Venezuela, Colombia, Panamá, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia from the Spanish colonial power. As a figurehead for Latin American independence movements, he is still of great importance today. Bolìvar was born in Caracas in 1783. He dreamed of the Confederation of all States of America, but had to fail. Bolívar died in Colombia in 1830.

Hugo Chávez (1954-2013)

officer, revolutionary and politician. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías was born in Sabaneta in 1954 and had been President of Venezuela since February 2, 1999. He was re-elected three times in total. He is one of the left-wing socialist nationalists who have already reshaped the country considerably since taking office and who also repeatedly mess with the USA. Chavez had completed military training in Caracas. After a series of operations and chemotherapy in Cuba, he died of cancer on March 5, 2013 in Caracas.

Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816)

revolutionary. Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez was born in Caracas in 1750 and fought in vain for the independence and unification of the South American colonies. He is considered to be the pioneer of the liberator Simón Bolívar. After studying various languages and mathematics in Caracas, he completed military training. Nevertheless, he was considered a romantic. De Miranda died in Cádiz in 1816.

José Vicente Rangel (born 1929)

politician, lawyer, journalist. José Vicente Rangel was born in Caracas in 1922 and studied law. The left-wing politician was Venezuela's Vice President between 2002 and 2007. He also held the office of Minister of Defense for a time. Rangel later devoted himself to journalism, published columns and analyzed the political events of his country in his television show "José Vicente Today" (from 1998).

Simón Rodríguez (1769-1854)

The philosopher and educator, who also called himself Samuel Robertson, was the tutor of the independence hero Simón Bolívar. He was born in Caracas in 1769. After his published school review, the socialists were expelled from the country. He crossed Europe with Bolívar and worked as a teacher in various countries. Simón Rodríguez, who had always fought for the abolition of class society and equal educational opportunities for all, died in Peru in 1854.

Writer and poet

Rafael Cadenas (born 1930)

poet and essayist. Rafael Cadenas was born in Barquisimeto in 1930 and now teaches at the Central University of Venezuela. The multiple award-winning author (National Literature Prize of Venezuela, Guggenheim Scholarship, Pérez Bonalde Prize) has a flair for experimental poetry. He made his poetry debut in 1946 with the band "Cantos iniciales". Fourteen years later he would write his most popular work to date - "Los Cuadernos del destierro".

Rómulo Gallegos (1884-1969)

One of the most important literary prizes in Spanish-speaking countries is named after the writer and politician: the Venezuelan "Premio Rómulo Gallegos". From February to November 1948, Gallegos was President of Venezuela until he was overthrown in a coup. After exile in Cuba and Mexico, he returned to Venezuela in 1958. In the same year he received the National Literature Prize. One of his most important works is called "Der Bastard" (published in Germany: 1970). Gallegos died in 1969 in his native Caracas.

Francisco Herrera Luque ( 1927-1991)

Writer and psychiatrist. Francisco José Herrera Luque was born in Caracas in 1927 and studied medicine in Venezuela and Salamanca. He later specialized in his field of knowledge and turned to psychiatry. But he is even more important as the author of numerous historical novels on Venezuelan myths such as "Boves, el Urogallo" (1972) or "La Luna de Fausto" (1983), which, however, are not yet available in English translation. Luque died in 1991 in his hometown.

Eugenio Montejo (1938-2008)

One of the most famous poets in Venezuela. Eugenio Montejo was born in Caracas in 1938. The writer, who was awarded the National Literature Prize of Venezuela in 1998, is considered the founder of the literary magazine "Azar". He achieved international fame in 2003 through a quote from his poem "The earth turned so that we could come closer to each other" in the film "21 Grams". The actor quoting it was none other than Academy Award winner Sean Penn. Montejo died in 2008 in Valencia, Venezuela.

Arturo Uslar Pietri (1906-2001)

The descendant of German immigrants was a writer, politician and diplomat. Arturo Uslar Pietri was born in Caracas in 1906 as the descendant of a very militarily ambitious family. He attended the same school as the sons of the then dictator Juan Vincente Gómez and published his first articles with political content in his youth. Later he devoted himself to literature and became one of the most important representatives of modern Venezuelan literature. His most popular book is called "The Red Lances" (1931), an extremely political work. Pietri died in 2001 in his hometown.

Miguel Otero Silva (1908-1985)

Writer, journalist, humorist. Miguel Otero Silva was born in Barcelona, Venezuela, in 1908 and studied at the Central University of Venezuela. Although his subject was civil engineering, he gradually devoted himself increasingly to literature. His work was very politically oriented with social tendencies, which forced him into exile before Venezuela proclaimed democracy. Silva was awarded the National Literature Prize of Venezuela, among others. One of his most famous writings is the poem "Bronce" ("Bronze"). Silva died in Caracas in 1985.

Artist and athlete

José Antonio Abreu (born 1939)

Composer, activist, educator and economist. José Antonio Abreu was born in Valera in 1939, studied in Caracas and later became a professor there. His name went down in history through the founding of the "Sinfónica de la Juventud Venezolana Simón Bolívar" - a symphony orchestra made up of lots of young people from the poor and violence-ridden Caracas to give them a piece of quality of life. Abreu has been honored many times, including the Frankfurt Music Prize, the Erasmus Prize and the Echo Klassik.

Teresa Carreño (1856-1917)

pianist and composer. María Teresa Carreño García de Sena was born in Carracas in 1856 as the daughter of a politician and amateur pianist. He valued her talent early on and promoted it, so that she rose to international fame. In her lifetime Carreño was the best pianist in the world. This was probably also possible because the family had emigrated to the USA, where they had better training and performance opportunities than in the politically insecure Venezuela. Carreño died in New York in 1917.

Carlos Cruz-Diez (born 1923)

One of the most famous Venezuelan artists. Carlos Cruz-Diez was born in Caracas in 1923. He is considered to be a co-founder of kinetic art, which identifies movement as an essential element, i.e. art that apparently changes as the viewer's perspective changes. The artist is particularly fond of lines. He makes these seem to vibrate using special technology. Cruz-Diez has had exhibitions all over the world and his works adorn public spaces. He also taught typography and graphic design at the University of Caracas.

María Luisa Escobar (1903-1985)

Composer, pianist and soprano singer. María Luisa González de Escobar was born in Valencia in 1903. She achieved international fame through numerous compositions of waltzes, ballet suites, bolero ("Desesperanza" became the most famous) and folklore pieces. Musicals were also part of her repertoire. Escobar has sung at such important venues as New York's Carnegie Hall and has received numerous awards worldwide. She died in Caracas in 1985.

Andrés Galarraga (born 1961)

The Venezuelan baseball player played in the US major league. Andrés Galarraga was born in Caracas in 1961 and made a real start as a baseball player with various teams in the USA, for example with the San Francisco Giants. He was twice named Mayor League Comeback Player of the Year as the first baseball player ever. He also won the Golden Glove Award twice. In total, Galarraga has scored 399 home runs.

Armando Reverón (1889-1954)

The visual artist devoted himself mainly to painting. Armando Reverón was born in Caracas in 1889 and became a national classic of Venezuela through his impressionistic painting of nudes and landscapes, but also through curious life-size dolls. His birthday today is the "National Day of Visual Artists". Armando Reverón died in 1954 in his hometown.

Other famous people

Baruj Benacerraf (1920-2011)

medical doctor. Baruj Benacerraf was born in Caracas in 1920 and trained in Paris. The Venezuelan of Jewish origin later moved to the USA. For the "discovery of genetically determined cellular surface structures by which immunological reactions are controlled", as the Swedish committee put it in its justification, he was one of the Nobel Prize winners for medicine and physiology in 1980. Baruj Benacerraf died in 2011 in the US city of Boston.

Jacinto Convit (born 1913)

Medical scientist. Jacinto Convit was born in Caracas in 1913 and studied medicine at the Central University of Venezuela. The researcher, who was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1988, is considered the father of the first vaccine against leprosy. In 1987, the long-time WHO employee received the Spanish Prince of Asturias Prize for scientific and technical research.

Venezuela: animals

Mammals

The various landscapes of Venezuela are the habitat of numerous animals, including around 250 different species of mammals. Collared peccaries, capybaras, the largest rodents in the world, and pudus, the smallest deer in the world that are hardly bigger than hares, live here.

You can also find armadillos, anteaters, sloths, coatis, possums and tapirs.

The country's predators include the jaguar, puma, ocelot, tiger cat, long-tailed cat, and forest dog.

The local monkeys include the brown capuchin, the white-headed saki, the gray-throated night monkey and the brown spider monkey.

Reptiles without poisonous snakes

Idol snake

The idol snake (Boa constrictor) reaches sizes between 3 and 4 m and feeds on smaller and larger mammals as well as on birds and reptiles.

The prey is embraced and strangled by contracting the muscles.

There are six subspecies of

the snake. A detailed description of the snake can be found at Goruma here >>>

Anaconda

The great anaconda (Eunectes murinus) can in rare cases be over 9 m long and is therefore the largest snake in the world alongside the reticulated python. Your prey is entwined and strangled or crushed by the contraction of the muscles

- Eunectes beniensis (Beni anaconda)

- Eunectes deschauenseei (De-Schauensee anaconda)

- Eunectes murinus (large anaconda)

- Eunectes notaeus (yellow anaconda)

A detailed description of the local Great Anaconda can be found at Goruma here >>>

There are four types of the genus Anaconda:

Other interesting reptiles are pointed crocodiles, Orinoco crocodiles, crocodile caimans as well as iguanas and turtles. Giant otters, piranyas and Amazon dolphins also live in the Orinoco.

Venomous snakes - lance vipers

General

The genus of the lance vipers (Bothrops) belongs to the subfamily of the pit vipers (Ctotalinae) and to the family of the vipers (Viperidae).

The genus of the lance viper comprises 45 species of snakes, some of which in turn have subspecies.

The smallest species or subspecies reach a length between 50 to 70 cm and the largest can be over 2 m long.

Their poison has tissue-destroying parts (proteases), blood-damaging and kidney-damaging parts.

It is worth mentioning that the enzyme reptilase in the venom of Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca is used in diagnostics to determine coagulation disorders and as a therapeutic agent for anticoagulation.

The animals are viviparous. They get their name from their triangular head shape, which is reminiscent of a lance tip

Brazilian lance viper (Bothrops brazil)

The snake is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Common lance viper (Bothrops atrox)

The snake is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.

Also on Trinidad, an island that belongs to the Lesser Antilles.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Speckled wood lance viper (Bothrops taeniatus)

The snake is found in Bolivia, Brazil (Amazon, Rondonia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Roraima, Maranhão, Pará and Acre), Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.

The snake has two subspecies, Bothrops taeniata taeniata and Bothrops taeniata lichenosa

Green Jararaca Lance Viper (Bothrops bilineatus)

The snake is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Colombia, Suriname and Venezuela.

There are two subspecies of the snake, Bothrops bilineata bilineata

and Bothrops bilineata smaragdina

Terciopelo lance viper (Bothrops asper)

The snake is also known as the rough lance viper.

They can be found in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Uracoa rattlesnake

The Uracoa rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis) is only found in the east of Venezuela.

enezuela lance viper

The Venezuela lance viper (Bothrops venezuelensis) occurs in Colombia and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Venezuela wood lance viper (Bothrops medusa)

The snake occurs only in Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake.

Venomous snakes - palm lance snakes

General

The palm lance vipers belong to the genus Bothriechis, to the subfamily of pit vipers (Crotalinae) and to the family of vipers (Viperidae).

The species of this snake genus have a length of about 60 to 80 cm - very rarely they reach a length of 1 m.

The palm lance vipers live exclusively in the trees of the tropical rainforest and are well adapted to the way of life in trees thanks to their long tail, which is optimized for grasping. Like all pit otters, they have pit organs on the sides of their heads between the nostrils and eyes, with which they can perceive thermal radiation (infrared radiation), which makes them good night hunters.

Their basic color is mostly green to greenish-yellow with light and dark speckles, whereby the very color-variable prehensile-tailed lanceolate is an exception.

Raspberry-tailed palm lance viper (Bothriechis schlegelii)

The snake is found in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico,

Nicaragua, Peru and Venezuela.

There are no subspecies of the snake

Venomous snakes - coral snakes

General

This usually very pretty snake of the genus Micrurus (coral snake, coral otter) with its black and white or yellow and red rings occurs in 79 species with various subspecies.

They can be found in the southern states of the USA via Mexico, Central America and almost all of South America - with the exception of Chile. Often, however, not nationwide but only in parts of the country or even in smaller regions.

They live mainly in moist, warm habitats and are between 60 to 150 cm long. Their head is barely wider than the trunk and their tail is short. They have The nocturnal snakes usually live hidden in holes in the ground, between dense vegetation or under stones and feed on small reptiles - more rarely on small mammals, amphibians, and young birds.

Bites are extremely rare in humans. They have a very effective neurotoxin, which interrupts the connection between nerves and between nerves and muscles (synapses).

In addition, numerous species of snake have poisonous parts that destroy muscle tissue (myotoxins). Without an antiserum, paralysis and even fatal respiratory arrest can be expected.

- Amazon coral snake (Micrurus spixii)

- Bolivian coral snake (Micrurus obscurus)

- Hempricht's coral snake (Micrurus hembrichi)

- Caribbean coral snake (Micrurus psyches) Langsdorff`s coral snake (Micrurus langsdorffi)

- Merida coral snake (Micrurus meridensis)

- Natterer`s coral snake (Micrurus nattereri)

- Pigmy Coral Snake (Micrurus dissoleucus)

- Redtail Coral Snake (Micrurus minipartitus) -

South American Coral Snake (Micrurus lemniscatus)

- Venezuela Coral Snake (Micrurus isozonus)

(Micrurus dumerilii)

Uracoa rattlesnake

The Uracoa rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis) is found only in a limited area in eastern Venezuela. It should be noted that there are a total of 47 species of the genus rattlesnakes (Crotalus).

Birds

Venezuela is home to 1,400 different bird species. In addition to numerous other water birds, brown pelicans, flamingos and red ibis live on the coast of the country.

One of the largest birds in the world, the Andean condor, rises in the Andes.

But there are also very smaller birds in the country, such as hummingbirds. Also the endemic white-tailed sword wing. The local parrots and toucans are particularly colorful.

The hoatzin has a striking head.

Particularly noteworthy is the country's national bird - the white-winged troupial - with its bright orange piglet on the belly. It occurs only in Venezuela, in the border area with Colombia and on some Caribbean islands.

 

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