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Cyprus

Cyprus: Political System

The Republic of Cyprus is a parliamentary democracy. Executive power lies with the President, who is both head of state and head of government and is elected by direct election for a five-year term. The parliament is a unicameral system (House of Representatives) with 80 seats, of which (in proportion to the population) 56 for Greek and 24 for Turkish Cypriots (the latter are currently not occupied). The party system is shaped by five major parties: The Building Party of the Working People (AKEL; Socialists), Democratic Party (DIKO; Conservatives), Democratic Collection (DISY; Right-Wing Conservatives), Social Democratic Movement (KYSOS; Social Democrats) United Democrats (EDI; Liberals ). There are also several smaller parties.

Cyprus: Political System

According to Digopaul.com, the official name of the country is:

REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS

National anthem

The national anthem of the Republic of Cyprus is identical to that of Greece. It is based on a poem written by Dionysios Solomós in 1823, set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros in 1828 and is considered the longest national anthem in the world (153 verses, of which only the first is sung on official occasions) became the official anthem of Cyprus in 1960. In the English translation the title is "Ode to Freedom".

National flag

The national flag (national flag) of Cyprus was introduced after independence from Great Britain (UK) in 1960.

Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the copper-colored silhouette of the island (Cyprus = copper) is on a white background. The two green crossed olive branches symbolize the hope for peace between the Greek and Turkish parts of the island.

Cyprus flag and coat of arms

The Turkish occupied north of Cyprus

This part of the island covers about 3,355 km² of the island area, with currently about 200,000 residents. This number also includes an estimated 70,000 mainland Turks and Kurds who were settled in Cyprus after the 1974 invasion, as well as approximately 40,000 soldiers from Turkey. The capital is Nicosia. Since the unilateral declaration of independence on November 15, 1983, the occupied north has been called the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (Kuzey Kibris Türk Cumhuriyeti). At the head of the presidential republic is a president who is elected directly by the people every five years. The parliament has 50 seats.

A passport or identity card that is valid for at least three months is sufficient to enter this part of Cyprus. (max. stay: three months). A visa is issued free of charge upon entry. The currency is the Turkish Lira. Regardless of the point of entry, EU citizens can move freely around the island, but must use certain border crossings.

Cyprus: Known People

Aphrodite, politician

Aphrodite

Aphrodite is the goddess of love in the Greek legend. According to legend, she was born from the foam of the sea near Petra tou Romiou near Paphos.

Nikos Anastasiadis (born 1946)

Nikos Anastasiadis was born on September 27, 1946 in Pera Pedi in the Limassol district.

The Greek Cypriot politician became chairman of the Christian Democratic-Conservative Party Dimokratikos Synagermos (DISY) in 1997 and President of the Republic of Cyprus on February 28, 2013.

Dimitris Christofias (born 1946)

Dimitris Christofias was born on August 29, 1946 in Kato Dikomo. He was President of the Republic of Cyprus from February 28, 2008 to February 27, 2013.

And from 1989 to 2009 he was general secretary of the former Marxist-Leninist and now Eurocommunist Progress Party of the Working People (AKEL).

Rauf Denktaş (1924-2012)

Rauf Raif Denktaş (Denktasch) was born on January 27, 1924 in Paphos **. He was Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus from 1973 to 1974, but after the partition of the island in 1974 he proclaimed the Turkish Federal State of Cyprus in 1975, of which he was President until 1983.

In that year he declared the independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and was its president from 1983 to 2005.

He died on January 13, 2012 in Lefkoşa in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

** Paphos is a port city in the southwest of the Republic of Cyprus. In 2017 it is - together with the Danish city of Aarhus - European Capital of Culture.

Glafkos Clerides (1919-2013)

Glafkos Klerides was born in Nicosia on April 24, 1919.

During the Second World War he had served in the Royal Air Force and was shot down by Germans in 1942 and was then taken into captivity, which lasted until the end of the war.

In 1960 he became the first Speaker of Parliament of the Republic of Cyprus after independence from Great Britain (UK). In 1974 he became head of state for the first time during the Turkish military offensive.

In 1976 he founded the Overall Democratic Movement (DISY), the ruling party in the Republic of Cyprus.

From 1993 to 2003 he was the fourth President of the Republic of Cyprus.

He died on November 15, 2013 in Nicosia, the city of his birth.

Spýros Kyprianoú (1932-2002)

Spýros Kyprianoú was born in Limassol on October 28, 1932.

His mentor Archbishop Makarios made him Defense Minister of the country in 1950 and from August 1960 to June 1972 he was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.

Thereafter he was President of the Republic of Cyprus from 1977 to 1988.

The largest sports arena in Cyprus, the Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Center, was named in his honor.

He died on March 12, 2002 in Nicosia.

Makarios III. (1913-1977)

Makarios III. was born Michalis Mouskos and was an Orthodox Archbishop and the first President of the independent Republic of Cyprus.

He ruled Cyprus from 1960 to 1977. Makarios was a legend even during his lifetime, and his photo is still hanging on the walls of many Cypriot families' homes.

Tassos Papadopoulos (1934-2008)

Tassos Papadopoulos was born on January 7, 1934 in Nicosia. From March 1, 2003 to February 28, 2008 he held the office of President of the Republic of Cyprus.

He has been politically active since the mid-1960s and was one of the signatories to the Cyprus Constitution. From 1960 to 1970 he held various ministerial offices.

In 2000 he became chairman of the Civic Democratic Party of Cyprus. On March 1, 2003 he succeeded Glafkos Klerides in the office of President and held the office until 2008.

He died on December 12, 2008 in his native Nicosia of the consequences of his lung cancer and on December 15, 2008 in Agia -Sophia Church in Nicosia.

Absurdly, early in the morning on December 11, 2009, his tomb was opened and his body was stolen.

After a tip, she was found on March 8, 2010 in another grave in Nicosia and reburied.

Nikos Sampson (1935-2001)

Nikos Sampson (actually: Nikolaos Georgiades) was born on December 16, 1935 in Famagusta.

The politician had represented extreme Greek nationalist positions and was President of the Republic of Cyprus for a few days from July 15 to 23, 1974 in the course of the attempted coup that sparked the Cyprus conflict.

Following the events of the fall of the military junta in Greece, he was arrested in 1976 and sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment for harming the national interests of Cyprus. But because of his cancer he was able to leave prison after about three years but had to go into exile.

After lengthy hospital stays abroad, he was allowed to return to Cyprus in 1990 and died there on May 9, 2001 in Nicosia.

Mehmet Ali Talât (born 1952)

Mehmet Ali Talât was born on July 6, 1952 in Girne (Kyrenia) in what is now the Turkish part of the island. He was Prime Minister of the Turkish Republican Party (CTP) from January 2004 to April 2005 and then President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus from 2005 to 2010.

In the 2010 presidential election, however, he was defeated Derviş Eroğlu.

Georges Vassiliou (born 1931)

Georges Vassiliou was born in Nicosia on May 20, 1931.

He was President of the Republic of Cyprus from 1988 to 1993.

He then founded the liberal Enomeni Dimokrates (United Democrats) party in 1993, which he chaired until 2005.

He is married to the former EU Commissioner Androulla Vassiliou, with whom he has three children.

Artists, athletes and others

Michael Cacoyannis (1922-2011)

Michael Cacoyannis was born on June 11, 1922 in Limassol. was a Cypriot-Greek film director, screenwriter and producer.

He first studied law in Athens and London and then worked for a while as a lawyer. After the war he started working as an actor and director at the Old Vic Theater in London.

He achieved worldwide fame and recognition in 1964 with the film adaptation of the novel Alexis Sorbas by Nikos Kazantzakis. The main role was played by Anthony Quinn. With the music of Mikis Theodorakis, the sirtaki was also created from the.

The film was nominated for seven Academy Awards and then won awards in three categories.

Michael Cacoyannis died on July 25, 2011 in Athens.

İsmet Vehit Güney (1932-2009)

İsmet Vehit Güney was born in Limassol in 1932. He was a Turkish Cypriot artist and teacher.

He is particularly known to this day for his design of the coat of arms of the Republic of Cyprus and the modern flag of the Republic of Cyprus.

This made the Republic of Cyprus the first country in the world to have its map displayed on the state flag.

He died on June 23, 2009 in the Turkish part of Nicosia.

Dakis Joannou (born 1939)

Dakis Joannou was born in Nicosia in 1939. He is a Cypriot industrialist and entrepreneur, but mainly lives in Athens.

He was best known as an art collector, one of the most important collections of contemporary art worldwide.

He is one of the most important patrons of the works of the American artist Jeff Koons (born 1955)

Joannou is President of the International Council of Directors of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, member of the asset management team of the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York

and member of the International Council of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles and the Tate Gallery.

Nazım Kıbrısi (1922-2014)

Nazım Kıbrısi (Mehmet Nâzım Adil) was born on April 21, 1922 in Larnaka. He worked as a Cyprus-Turkish Sufi teacher of the Naqschbandi tradition in Cyprus and in London.

He died on May 7, 2014 in North Nicosia in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

Christopher Pissarides (born 1948)

Christopher Antoniou Pissarides was born on February 20, 1948 in Nicosia. He is an economist and was Professor of Economics and Politics at the prestigious London School of Economics. In 2010 he received the Nobel Prize in Economics.

Pissaride's scientific work concerned the interaction between the labor market and macroeconomics, in particular on unemployment, labor market policy, growth and structural change.

George Michael (born 1963)

George Michael (real name Georgios Kyriacos Panayiotou;) is a pop singer and has a Greek-Cypriot father.

He was initially with the group WHAM! known and began a solo career in the late 80s. Various No. 1 hits followed, and in 1988 he received a Grammy Award.

St. Barnabas (1st century AD)

St. Barnabas was born to Jewish parents in Cyprus, he was a cousin of the evangelist Mark, converted to Christianity and is said to have accompanied the apostle Paul on the first missionary trip.

Barnabas was stoned and buried in Salamis near Famagusta.

Cat Stevens (born 1948)

Cat Stevens (real name Stavros Demitrios Georgiou, now known as Yousuf Islam) is a very popular former pop singer. He has a Greek Cypriot father.

He sold more than 40 million records and gave one of his songs the title "Kypros" (Cyprus).

In 2004 he received the "Man for Peace Award" in Rome for his work for peace, a prize that is awarded annually at a meeting of Nobel Peace Prize winners.

Chrystalleni Trikomiti (born 1993)

Chrystalleni Trikomiti was born on November 30, 1993 in Larnaka. She is a rhythmic gymnast who started doing rhythmic gymnastics at the age of three with her sister Loukia, who was two years older.

Her first international experience was at the Mediterranean Games in 2009 when she reached ninth place.

A year later she competed at the Kalamata Cup in Greece and made it to the finals in three of five disciplines. In the same year she even won five medals at the 2010 Commonwealth Games.

She received a great honor when she was voted Sportswoman of the Year in Cyprus in 2011. At the 2012 Olympic Games in London, however, it was only enough for a 19th place.

Anna Vissi (born 1957)

Anna Vissi is one of the most successful Greek-speaking singers of the past two decades.

One of her most important international appearances was at the closing event of the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.

Neşe Yaşın (born 1959)

Neşe Yaşın was born in Nicosia on February 12, 1959. She is a Turkish Cypriot poet and writer.

She has lived and worked in South Nicosia since the mid-1980s. She has been an active peace activist and member of the Cyprus Conflict Resolution Trainers Group since her youth.

Almost all of her works are in Turkish, with a number of her works having been translated into Greek and English.

Yaşın often publishes treatises on peace and the reunification of Cyprus. Zenon (336-264 BC) Zenon was born in Kition (today Kiti) and was the founder of the philosophy school of the Stoa (Stoics).

His doctrine had spread in the Hellenistic world and reached the Roman Empire, where it found many followers, including Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD).

Cyprus: animals

Short overview

Today around 26 species of amphibians and reptiles, 357 different bird species and around 195 fish species live on and around Cyprus - in addition to a number of mammals. We have presented a number of them here.

Mammals

Caucasian Squirrel

The Caucasian Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) reaches a head-trunk length of 19 to 25 cm. Their weight varies between 210 and 350 g depending on gender.

They have a tail with a length of 15 cm. Their fur is gray-brown to red-brown in color, sometimes also yellowish. It is significantly lighter and mostly yellowish to ocher in color. The animals live in forests with oak, beech, hazelnut and walnut trees. The animals can also be found in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey

Mouse weasel

The mouse weasel (Mustela nivalis) is a predator in the genus Mustela, in the subfamily Mustelinae in the family of the marten (Mustelidae). A detailed description of the mouse weasel can be found here >>>

Wild

rabbits Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are the only species in the genus Oryctolagus in the rabbit family (Leporidae). The animals reach a head-trunk length between 35 and 45 cm with a weight between 1.3 and 2.5 kg.

Their fur is gray-brown fur, which is colored brown to rusty red in the neck area. In contrast to the brown hare, the animals have short ears with 6 to 8 cm. They are pure herbivores and feed mainly on grasses, herbs and leaves, but occasionally they also eat bark and twigs

Fallow deer

Cyprus has some populations of introduced fallow deer (Dama dama).

A detailed description of these deer can be found here >>>

Long-eared hedgehog

The long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) is one of the smallest hedgehogs in the Middle East.

Except for its size and ears, it differs little from the brown-breasted hedgehog.

Egyptian bat

The Egyptian bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) belongs to the fruit bat family (Pteropodidae).

The animals feed on fruits. They have a wingspan of up to 60 cm and a weight of 80 to 150 g. The body length of the males is between 14 and 19 cm, while the females are between 12 and 17 cm tall. The color of the back varies from dark brown to grayish. The fur on the belly is ash gray and therefore a little lighter.

Red foxes Red

foxes (Vulpes vulpes) can also be found in Cyprus.

A detailed description of the red fox can be found here >>>

Wildcats

There are some wildcats (Felis silvestris) living in the island's forests.

You can find a detailed description of the wild cats here >>>

Cyprus

mouflons The Cyprus mouflons (Ovis gmelini ophion) are one of the subspecies of the mouflons (wild sheep).

The animals live in the Páfosforst and are under nature protection. It is believed that they came to Cyprus as pets as early as the Neolithic settlers and later feral. Because of its tasty meat, the mouflon has always been a popular hunting object - with the result that during the British rule only 20 animals were left. Nowadays there are again over 1,000 animals on the island.

The male mouflon - the ram - has long, spiral-shaped and inwardly twisted horns, the so-called snails and a black-brown, dense fur. The females have short horns and are gray or dark brown in color. The mouflon feed consists of plants, herbs, mushrooms, grasses and young shoots of trees and bushes.

Those who hunt a mouflon not only face a heavy fine, but also face imprisonment!

Cypriot spiny mouse

The Cypriot spiny mouse (Acomys nesiotes) has a head body length between 7 and 17 cm and a 6 to 12 cm long tail. On their back they are yellowish, brown or gray in color and have coarse bristle hairs - the spines. They have noticeably large and erect, funnel-shaped ears and an elongated face that tapers towards the nose. The animals are endemic, so they only occur in Cyprus.

Cyprus mouse

The Cyprus mouse (Mus cypriacus) was only discovered in 2004, a type of mouse that has lived in Cyprus for a long time. It has a larger head, ears, eyes, and teeth than any other known species of mouse

Bats

The local six different bat species are also worth mentioning.

Amphibians

Savigny's tree frog

The Savigny's tree frog (Hyla Savignyi), also known as lemon-yellow tree frog, belongs to the amphibian group and prefers not too dense bushland, subtropical or tropical dry bushland, Mediterranean shrubby vegetation, grassland, subtropical or tropical dry flat land, rivers or freshwater lakes.

Besides Cyprus, the animals are also found in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey and Yemen.

Green toad

The green toad (Bufo viridis) belongs to the amphibians and - depending on gender - reaches a size of 8 to 10 cm. Both sexes have numerous large green island-like spots, which are missing on the belly. There are mostly reddish warts on the sides of the females. Their name comes from the fact that they can adapt their color to their surroundings lighter or darker

Cyprus water frog

The Cyprus water frog (Pelophylax cypriensis) belongs to the amphibians in the family Ranidae. The animals are endemic to Cyprus, so they only occur here.

Reptiles

The following (Eid) lizard species or subspecies are found in Cyprus:

• European chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon recticrista)

• Aegean bare

finger (Mediodactylus kotschyi fitzingeri) • European half- fingered gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus

)

• European snakes (Oaugantheeopschylenfingereide) (Oaugantheeops) schlueteri)

• Syrian lizard (Phoenicolacerta troodica)

• Locust lizard (Ablepharus budaki budaki)

• Spotted roller skink (Chalcides ocellatus ocellatus)

• Spotted skink (Eumeces schneideri schneideri)

• Striped skink (Trachylepis vittata)

• Hardunio

Of the 58 lizard species from the genus Agamo, the Hardun (Agama stelio, also: Stellagama stellio),

with a length of up to 38 cm, is the largest. When viewed up close, the animal's head looks like a dinosaur.

The Greek Cypriots call it nosebiters and the Armenian Cypriots feared the animal

because it was considered a danger to their penis.

Levant Otter

The Levant Otter (Macroektivena lebetina) is the only dangerous venomous snake found in Cyprus. Your bite can have serious consequences. You can find a detailed description of the Levant Otters here >>>

More snakes that are not poisonous or very little poisonous

Lizard snake

The lizard snake (Malpolon monspessulanus) only has poison teeth in the back of its snout, so it cannot normally transfer the poison to humans. In the case of its prey, it transfers its poison with the help of a so-called clinging bite, in which it literally chews its poison into the prey. In the extremely rare human bite victims, paralysis and breathing problems were observed.

In addition to Cyprus, these snakes can also be found in Spain - including Ibiza, Portugal, Gibraltar, southwest France, northwest Italy - including Lampedusa, on the coasts and on some islands of Croatia, in Slovenia, Herzegovina, Monte Negro, North Macedonia, in Greece - including Corfu, Lesbos, Samos, Chios, Samothraki. Furthermore in Bulgaria, Lebanon, in the south of Russia, in Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, in the west of Iran, in Iraq, in the west of Arabia, in Turkey, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Israel, Jordan as well in northern Sudan.

A detailed description of the lizard snake can be found here >>>

European cat snake

The European cat snake (Telescopus fallax) is divided into 10 subspecies, with the Cyprus cat snake (Telescopus fallax cypriacus) being a subspecies that is only found on Cyprus. The snake reaches a size between 60 to 80 cm. Their coloring is gray, gray-brown or yellowish-brown with a back markings of dark rectangular spots, between which there are lighter bars. The same applies to this type of snake as to the lizard snake. She only has the fangs in the back of her mouth. Thus, a bite with poison transmission to humans by a cat snake rarely occurs.

A detailed description of the European cat snake can be found here >>>

Headband dwarf snake

The headband dwarf snake (Eirenis modestus) only reaches a length between 50 to 60 cm. The color of their back is mostly light brown or gray-brown and the belly is yellow or gray. The head, on the other hand, has a mostly black, very conspicuous pattern, which, however, fades with age. In addition to Cyprus, the snake is also found in Turkey, Georgia and Armenia. It is also found on some Greek islands, such as Lesbos and Samos.

Coin snake

The coin snake (Hemorrhois nummifer) occurs all over the island and reaches a length between 100 to 130 cm. It gets its name from the coin-like spots on its gray or green-brown back. Apart from Cyprus, they can be found in southern Turkey and on the Mediterranean coast of Asia and Egypt.

Arrow snake

The arrow snake (Dolichophis jugularis) can be up to 2.50 m long. Their upper side is usually black and more rarely gray, while the underside and throat are colored a light to dark red. The snake is diurnal and hibernates in a protected hiding place during the cooler months.

Besides Cyprus, it occurs in Turkey and in the Middle East, such as Iran, Iraq, Syria and Jordan. The species in Cyprus is also called the black arrow snake.

Grass snake

The grass snake is also widespread in Germany. A detailed description of the grass snake can be found here >>>

Worm snake The European worm snake (Xerotyphlops vermicularis) - also known as dumb-eye - is a very small snake with a length between 20 and 30 cm. It is reminiscent of a large earthworm. It lives mostly underground and feeds mainly on ants. Apart from Cyprus, this snake can also be found in Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece - including Corfu, Lesbos, Chios, Limnos, Samos, Thassos - in Turkey, in the south of Russia (Caucasus, Dagestan), in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, in the south of Turkmenistan, in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan,

Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan.

Cyprus snake

The Cyprus snake (Dolichophis cypriensis) is found in forests, shrubby Mediterranean vegetation, fresh water swamps and water storage areas. The snake grows to over 2 m long and is quite aggressive. Up to the age of 4 to 5 years it has a brick-like color with brown spots. Then it turns black. It is endemic, so it only occurs in Cyprus.

Birds

The bird world is very species-rich, which is due to the numerous migratory birds that come to the island every year. They are particularly common in the forests of the Troodos mountain range. In addition to chaffinches and crossbills, there are the Cypriot partridge, the nightingale and the silk warbler. While lovebirds can be hunted, the collar francolin is under nature protection. Other birds are chukar chickens, nightingales, silkworms, collared francolin, jay cuckoo, eleanor's falcon, steppe harrier and pond water strider.

In the salt lake near Larnaka you can watch flamingos in winter. Scaled warblers and Cyprus wheatear are endemic, i.e. only found here.

At the beginning of December you have the rare pleasure of observing flamingos as guests. These form a family of their own and are in Africa, Spain and southern Francespread. The up to 130 cm tall birds are immediately recognizable by their long and thin neck, by their thin legs and by their thick, downwardly curved pink beak with a black tip. This is used as a sieve when searching for food. The menu includes worms, algae and, above all, small crustaceans. They are also responsible for the pink plumage of the flamingos. The red dye absorbed with the crabs is stored in the feathers. After all, the more crabs the birds have eaten, the more pink they are. The famous one-legged standing is used to store heat, as one leg is hidden in the warm plumage and thus less heat loss occurs. This feat is not strenuous for the flamingos (as well as for storks).

Other birds that can be found in Cyprus are cap and zip pods, blue alder, shrike, wheatear as well as falcons, hooded crows and eagles. Eagles, falcons, sparrowhawks and vultures can also be found in Cyprus. Rarely or not at all you will see storks.

sea animals

Sea turtles

The sea turtles lay their eggs on the coasts of the Akamas and Karpas peninsulas as well as of Varoscha near Famagusta. To protect the eggs, the Cypriot government had issued a protection program, including the beaches for the duration of the egg-laying. The following turtles are found in Cyprus:

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) • Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) (Loggerhead Turtle)

• Eastern Mediterranean brook turtle (Mauremys rivulata)

In addition to parrotfish and the yellowfin surgeon fish, sea bream, sea barb and turbot live in the waters of Cyprus. On the seabed you can watch rays and starfish while diving, further out on the sea there are also sharks.

However, squids have become quite rare here. However, numerous edible fish are also very rare due to the severe overfishing of the waters around the island and in large parts of the Mediterranean and have therefore usually become very expensive in the restaurants.

In addition to the fish species common in the Mediterranean, the coastal waters in the east of the island also have fish that came through the Suez Canal from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, including flute fish (Fistulariidae) and rabbit fish (Siganidae).

Cyprus: plants

Short overview

Cyprus is in the biodiversity hotspot of the Mediterranean region. Only about 18 to 19% of the island is covered by forest. The forest areas had decreased due to clearing, grazing with goats and frequent forest fires. In addition, parts of the forests used to be cleared for mining in order to obtain fuel for smelting silver and copper. More wood was used for shipbuilding.

Larger forest areas can only be found in the Troodos Mountains - with pines, which are closely related to the Aleppo pine, as well as cypresses, cedars and pines. However, efforts are being made to expand the forest stock by replanting - not least in the course of the fight against climate change. The planted trees are increasingly hampered by a lack of water. Cyprus is nevertheless the most densely forested island in the Mediterranean. Already in ancient times it was particularly known for its good wine and high quality olive oil and its grain.

Trees

As mentioned, there are even larger contiguous forest areas, especially in the Troodos Mountains. Here pines, which are closely related to the Aleppo pine, as well as cypress and pine trees, as well as the endemic alder-leaved oaks and Cyprus cedars grow. The black pine and the Phoenician juniper helped with the reforestation. On the edges of the Troodos, the natural flora has largely been replaced by apple, pear, peach, almond and nut trees as well as by vineyards. The Calabrian pine is the most common forest tree on the island. In addition, the island is characterized by cypresses, olive groves and carob trees. The Troodos pine, which is up to 30 m high, is one of the endemic trees. In the past it was used intensively in boat building and therefore largely cut down. The last specimens are still growing in Cedar Valley.

Crops

Orange and grapefruit trees grow near Lemesos, aubergines, onions and tomatoes are grown in the southeast of Cyprus, while figs and pomegranates dominate the scene in the northwest. Bananas grow in the southwest of Cyprus.

In earlier times, the sap of the 1-3 m high mastic bush was formed into small spheres, which have now been replaced by commercially available chewing gum. The plant is still used today, however, and not only is schnapps distilled from the juice, but the bark and leaves are also used as a tanning agent. Furthermore, the mastic bush is said to be useful in the manufacture of glass and porcelain.

The tanner sumac from the sumac family, which grows on the Akamas peninsula, has received numerous other names, such as sumac or dye tree, depending on its use. The plant grows both as a shrub and as a tree and is found in Cyprus as well as in Sicily and Turkey. Even in ancient times, the leaves were used to tan leather and dye hair, and the bark was used to dye wool. Today the ground stone fruits are very popular as a spice and are used together with the roots to color them black.

Medicinal plants

The resin of the mastic bush is used exclusively in folk medicine in his home countries as a medicinal product. It is said to help with stomach pain and ulcers in the digestive tract, as well as with diarrhea and applied externally also with gout and rheumatism. Its mode of action has not yet been proven.

The root of the white affodil, which grows on the peaks around Machairas, was used in ancient times to protect against pregnancy, as it has a strong abortion effect. Internally it was used for gastrointestinal complaints and cramps and externally as a paste for swelling, infections and dermatitis. Affodil was also placed on graves because it was also considered the food of the spirits of the dead and was a symbol of life after death.

The flowers of the poppy are said to have a calming and analgesic effect, which is why they are also used for dry coughs, asthma, insomnia and hoarseness.

Poisonous plants

The poppy from the poppy family is only slightly toxic. The latex, which is contained in all parts of the plant except for the seeds, is said to occasionally cause nausea and stomach pain, especially in children. The plant, which can grow up to 90 cm, grows on the edges of paths and fields as well as in fields. The poppy can be recognized by its red flowers, which are often mixed with tea blends when dry.

It is widespread in Europe and North Africa.

More plants

Around 1,800 flowering plants grow here and in spring you can see anemones, daffodils, gladioli, iris, affodilla, tulips and poppies. A number of orchid species also grow on the island. In autumn, grape hyacinths and the endemic Cypriot cyclamen grow among others. Bougainvillea, imported from Brazil, blooms all year round. On Cyprus you can find numerous maquis with the typical turpentine acacias, gorse, strawberry trees or myrtle. The evergreen golden oak is endemic. The yellow flowering stone herb is typical of Cyprus. Acacia and eucalyptus were also introduced.

Introduced plants

The Bougainvilleae, which blooms everywhere, comes from Central America. The citrus tree from China is also not indigenous. In order to reforest the forest, acacia, some spruce and fir species were introduced.

 

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Burkina Faso Burundi Bangladesh Bhutan Belarus Belgium
Cameroon Canary Islands Brunei Cambodia Bulgaria Croatia
Cape Verde Central African Republic China Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark
Chad Comoros East Timor Georgia Estonia Finland
D.R. Congo Djibouti Hong Kong India France Germany
Egypt Equatorial Guinea Indonesia Iran Greece Hungary
Eritrea Ethiopia Iraq Israel Iceland Ireland
Gabon Gambia Japan Jordan Italy Kosovo
Ghana Guinea Kazakhstan Kuwait Latvia Liechtenstein
Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Kyrgyzstan Laos Lithuania Luxembourg
Kenya Lesotho Lebanon Macau Macedonia Malta
Liberia Libya Malaysia Maldives Moldova Monaco
Madagascar Malawi Mongolia Myanmar Montenegro Netherlands
Mali Mauritania Nepal North Korea Norway Poland
Mauritius Morocco Oman Pakistan Portugal Romania
Mozambique Namibia Palestine Philippines Russia San Marino
Niger Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia Serbia Slovakia
Reunion Republic of the Congo Singapore South Korea Slovenia Spain
Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Sri Lanka Syria Sweden Switzerland
Senegal Seychelles Taiwan Tajikistan Ukraine Vatican City
Sierra Leone Somalia Thailand Turkey

Central America

South Africa South Sudan Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Aruba Antigua and Barbuda
Sudan Suriname Uzbekistan Vietnam Bahamas Barbados
Swaziland Tanzania Yemen   Belize Bosnia and Herzegovina
Togo Tunisia

Oceania

Cuba British Virgin Islands
Uganda Zambia American Samoa Australia Costa Rica Curacao
Zimbabwe   Cook Islands Easter Island Dominica Dominican Republic

Latin America

Falkland Islands Fiji Ecuador El Salvador
Argentina Bolivia French Polynesia Guam Guadeloupe Guatemala
Brazil Chile Kiribati Marshall Islands Haiti Honduras
Colombia French Guiana Micronesia Nauru Jamaica Martinique
Guyana Nicaragua New Caledonia New Zealand Montserrat Panama
Paraguay Peru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Saba
Uruguay Venezuela Palau Pitcairn   Trinidad and Tobago

North America

Samoa Papua New Guinea    
Canada Greenland Solomon Islands Tokelau    
Mexico United States Tonga Tuvalu    
    Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna    

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