Thailand: Political System
Thailand is a constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the king. From
1947 until his death on October 13, 2016, the very popular King Bhumibol
Adulyadej, Rama IX, ruled. (1927-2016)
At the head of the state is a head of government who is directly elected by the
people. The parliament is a bicameral system. It consists of the Senate with 200
seats, which is elected every six years, and the House of Representatives with
500 seats, which is elected every four years. The voting age is 18 years.
According to Digopaul.com,
the official name of the country is:
The country is divided into 76 provinces, which in turn are divided into
In September 2006, the military took power in the country with the support of
the king. The elected Prime Minister Thaksin had to go into exile. In the
elections in December 2007, the newly founded "Party of People's Power" (PPP)
then clearly won the elections. The PPP is considered a Thaksin-affiliated
political grouping. The chairman of the PPP Samak Sundavarej announced after his
election victory that he wanted to form a government under his leadership. The
election result is considered a severe defeat for the putschists.
A military government is currently ruling under Prime Minister General Prayut
Chan-o-cha. The head of state has been King Maha Vajiralongkorn (born 1952)
since October 13, 2016
The national anthem of Thailand has been "Phleng Chat" since
December 10, 1939. It was composed by Peter Feit (Phra Chen-Duriyang,
1883-1968), son of German immigrants. Your text is from Luang Saranuprphan.
||In English translation
|Prathet thai ruam luead nu'a chat chu'a thai
Pen pra cha rat - pha thai kho'ng thai thuk suan
Yu dam rong khong wai dai thang muan
Duai thai luan mai rak sa mak khi
Thai ni rak sa ngop tae thu'ng rop mai khlat
Ekka cha mai hai khrai khom khi
Sala luead thuk yat pen chat phli
Tha loeng pra thet chat thai tha wi mi chai
all people with Thai blood with his chest.
Every inch of Thailand belongs to the Thais.
The country has maintained its independence
because the Thais have always been united.
Thais live in peace,
but they are not cowards in war.
They will not allow
anyone to deprive them of their independence.
Nor will they suffer tyranny.
All Thais are ready
to sacrifice every drop of their blood to the nation
for security, freedom and progress.
The national flag of Thailand was established by King Rama VI on September
28, 1917. (Introduced 1880-1925. Based on flag descriptions by
Countryaah.com, the colors of the flag with the five horizontal stripes in red-white-dark
blue-white-red are interpreted as follows:
- red symbolizes the nation
- white stands for religion
- blue stands for the monarchy
Thailand: writers and poets
Politicians and rulers
- Kuang Abhayawongse (1902-1968)
Prime Minister of Thailand from 1944-48
- Bhumibol Adulyadej (born 1927)
the current king since June 9, 1946
- Pridi Banomyong (Luang Praditmanudhamma, 1900-1983)
Prime Minister of Thailand between March and August 1946. He was involved in
the bloodless overthrow of the absolute monarchy of Thailand on March 24,
1932, which led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. The
following year, Pridi was suspected of being a communist and had to leave
the country. During the reign of Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena, he was
acquitted in court.
- Tawee Boonyaket (1904-1971)
served as Prime Minister of Thailand for exactly 17 days in 1945
- Boromatrailokanat (Prince Ramesuan, 1431-1488)
King of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya 1448-1488; introduced the ministries of
Defense and War, as well as the Ministry of Interior and Labor, which are
still known today. He also enforced Sakdi Na ("field violence"), also known
as the law of the civil hierarchy, according to which every subject received
- Kriangsak Jamanandana Chomanan (1917-2003)
General, Prime Minister of Thailand 1977-80. He ensured an improvement in
diplomatic relations with various countries in Southeast Asia, in particular
with Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar.
- Sarit Dhanarajata (1908-1963)
Field Marshal; Prime Minister of Thailand 1959-63
- Sanya Dharmasakti (1905-2002)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1973-75
- Ekatat (Boromaraja V., d. 1767)
last king of Ayutthaya 1758-1761 and 1763-1767
- Ekathotsarot (around 1556-1611)
King of Ayutthaya
- Prateep Ungsongtham Hata (born 1952)
General Secretary of the Duang Prateep Foundation and Thai Senator. In 2004,
Queen Silvia of Sweden awarded her "The World's Children's Prize for the
Rights of the Child" for her commitment to the poor.
- Chatichai Junhavan (1920-1998)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1988-91
- Thanom Kittikachorn (1911-2004)
General and Prime Minister of Thailand 1957-58 and 1963-73 respectively. He
was a representative of a tough pro-American and anti-communist course and
an opponent of parliamentarianism. Kittikachorn was involved in numerous
coups. As incumbent Prime Minister he dissolved parliament on November 17,
1971 and imposed martial law on the grounds that he had to save the country
from internal disintegration and the pro-communist guerrillas. On October
14, 1973 his military junta was overthrown and Kittikachorn went into
exile. However, he returned and was nominated for the Royal Guard of Honor
in 1999 by then Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai.
- Tanin Kraivixien (born 1927)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1976-77
- Suchinda Kraprayoon (born 1933)
Prime Minister of Thailand in 1992
- Chuan Leekpai (born 1938)
lawyer; Prime Minister of Thailand 1992-2000
- Narai the Great (d. 1688)
King of Ayutthaya 1656-1688
- Naresuan (1555-1605)
King of Ayutthaya 1590-1605
- Thawal Thamrong Navaswadhi (1901-1988)
Prime Minister of Thailand in 1947
- Phraya Manopakorn Nititada (1884-1948)
the first Prime Minister of Thailand 1932-33
- Anand Panyarachun (born 1932)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1991-92
- Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena (1887-1947)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1933-38
- Phetracha (d. 1703)
King of Ayutthaya
- Kukrit Pramoj (1911-1995)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1975-76; During his tenure, the relationship
between Thailand and China improved significantly.
- Seni Pramoj (1905-1997)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1945-46 and 1975-76
- Prasat Thong (d. 1655)
King of Ayutthaya 1630-1655
- Prince Damrong Rajanubhab (1862-1943)
one of the most influential Thai personalities of the early 20th century. He
is considered the founder of the modern school system in Thailand and
modernized the provincial administration as the first minister of the
interior from 1894 to 1915. Then he devoted himself to writing history.
- Rama I. Phra Puttha Yotfa Chulalok (1736-1809)
founder of the Chakri dynasty, which chose Bangkok as its royal seat; King
of Siam 1783-1809
- Rama II Phra Phuttaloetla (1766-1824)
King of Siam
- Rama III. Phra Nang Klao (1788-1851)
King of Siam 1824-1851
- Rama IV Mongkut (1804-1868)
King of Siam 1851-1868
- Rama V. Chulalongkorn the Great (1853-1910)
King of Siam 1868-1910
- Rama VI. Vajiravudh (1880-1925)
King of Siam 1910-1925
- Rama VII. Prajadhipok (1893-1941)
King of Siam and Thailand 1925-1935. During his reign in 1932 the absolute
monarchy was transformed into a constitutional monarchy. He reluctantly
agreed to this with the words: "I agree to become a puppet so that the
introduction of the constitutional monarchy can be carried out as gently as
possible." In 1935 he abdicated.
- Rama VIII. Ananda Mahidol (1925-1946)
King of Thailand 1935-1946
- Rama IX. Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great (born 1927)
King of Thailand since June 9, 1946
- Rama Thibodi (1314-1369)
the first king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in Siam
- Rama Thibodi II (1472-1529)
King of Ayutthaya in Siam
- Ramkhamhaeng (around 1239-1298)
King of Sukhothai. Under his rule, Sukhotai became the most powerful state
in Southeast Asia.
- Pote Sarasin (1905-2000)
Prime Minister of Thailand September to December 1957; was Secretary General
of SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) from 1957
- Thaksin Shinawatra (born 1949)
Prime Minister of Thailand since 2001
- Banharn Silapa-Archa (born 1932)
Prime Minister of Thailand 1995-96
- Sirikit (born 1932)
Queen of Thailand, wife of King Rama IX. She has been President of the Red
Cross in Thailand since 1956.
- Phibul Songkhram (1887-1964)
Field Marshal; Prime Minister of Thailand 1938-44 and 1948-57. Under his
rule the country was renamed from Siam to "Mueang Thai" (Thailand).
- Songtham (1590-1628)
King of Ayutthaya 1610-1628
- Sri Indraditya (d. 1270)
founder of the Phra Ruang dynasty of the Sukhothai kingdom. He ruled
- Taksin (1734-1782)
king until the beginning of the Chakri dynasty; was "royally executed", that
is, since no royal blood was officially allowed to be shed, he was put in a
velvet sack and beaten to death
- Prem Tinsulanonda (born 1920)
General; Prime Minister of Thailand 1980-88
- Chavalit Yongchaiyudh (born 1932)
politician and general; Prime Minister of Thailand 1996-97; currently Deputy
- Amorn Surangkanjanajai (born 1953)
actor; lives in Germany
- Supachai Panitchpakdi (born 1946)
Director General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) 2002-2005
- Sulak Sivaraksa (born 1933)
founder and director of the Thai non-governmental organization
"Sathirakoses-Nagapradeepa Foundation", co-founder of the INEB
(International Network of Engaged Buddhists); 1995 received the "Alternative
- "Prince Bira" (Birabongse Bhanudej Bhanubandh) (1914-1985)
- Udomporn Polsak (born 1981)
weightlifter; Olympic champion and two-time world champion
- Buakaw Por. Pramuk (born 1982)
Muay Thai fighter (Thai boxing)
- Paradorn Srichaphan (born 1979)
- Pawina Thongsuk (born 1979)
weightlifter; Olympic champion
Theologians and philosophers
- Buddhadasa Bhikkhu (1906-1993)
is considered to be one of the most influential Theravada Buddhist monks of
the 20th century.
- Ajahn Chah (1918-1992)
Theravada Buddhist monk of the Kamatthana forest monk tradition; was also a
teacher for western Theravada monks. Monasteries around the world refer to
him and his teaching.
- Michael Mitchai Cardinal Kitbunchu (born 1929)
Archbishop of Bangkok
One of the most famous mammals in Thailand is probably the Asian elephant,
even if the wild population is now declining worryingly. The elephant, which
differs from the African elephant mainly in its smaller ears, is seen
much more often as a tourist attraction in shows and as a pack and work animal.
Most often you can still find it in the national park in the northeast of the
The leopards and tigers indigenous
to the area show dwindling populations due to heavy hunting.
The Sumatran rhinoceros and tapirs are
now almost extinct and can only be admired in national parks.
On the other hand, you can meet monkeys far more
frequently , with a wide variety of species native to Thailand. In the monsoon
and rain forests of life handed gibbon and the Pig- which Plumplori exclusively
inhabited the tropical rainforest. Other species are the langurs, macaques and Crab-eating
macaques. Flying foxes, mongooses and small
squirrels can be found almost everywhere. The latter belongs to
the deer piglet family and, with a body height of approx. 20 cm, is the smallest
member of the ungulates. The spotted musang is also still quite common, as is
the pig badger in the forests of the Malay Peninsula and the short-tailed
porcupine in the forests and grasslands.
It is unlikely that you will encounter the Javanese pangolin, and also the sun bear,
which is often called the sun bear is declining in its
existence. This is not least due to traditional medicine, which, as with the
rhinoceros and other threatened animal species, claims that certain parts of the
animal's body have healing or stimulating powers.
Reptiles/amphibians (without snakes)
Turtles are found in Thailand, but some are
extremely rare. This also includes the
Spiked earth turtle with the eye-catching red
carapace, which still occurs on fast flowing mountain streams. The
Temple tortoise lives on the Malay Peninsula as well
as in south-eastern central Thailand.
In contrast, butterfly agamas and banded
geckos as well as many other agamen and gecko
species are common throughout Thailand. To those found in
Thailand monitor species which includes Bengalwaran which Dumerilwaran and
the Asian Water Monitor, the m with its 3 length one
of the largest lizards in the world.
The brackish water zones should be entered with caution as they are home to
the estuarine crocodile, which is the largest living
crocodile. It also lives in coastal waters, mangrove swamps, and at estuaries
and is relatively widespread. Its distribution area includes the coasts of Sri
Lanka, East India, Burma and Cambodia, the Philippines, New Guinea, Australia,
the Bismarck Islands and the Solomon Islands. This crocodile has been protected
since the late 1970s.
Of course, the amphibians are also represented in Thailand, frogs and toads can
be found wherever there is water.
Snakes (not poisonous)
The blood python, which occurs predominantly in
southern Thailand, is one of the nontoxic, but therefore by no means harmless,
snakes. It captures its food by strangling it in a stranglehold. There are
also some non-poisonous tree snakes , but under no
circumstances should they be confused with the poisonous representatives of
The scolopender, which belongs to the family of
arthropods, can become uncomfortable for humans. This ground-dwelling,
crepuscular or nocturnal centipede has a flat build and can grow up to 30 cm
long and 2.5 cm thick. You can find it under stones, roots and in crevices. Its
bite is not fatal, but it can be very painful and sometimes even lead to
The common tarantulas are actually poisonous, but
the poison does not pose a threat to humans. However, the bite could be quite
painful. The blue Burma tarantula, which stands out with its deep blue colored
legs, is aggressive and snappy, but also beautiful to look at. Their stimulus
threshold is relatively low and compared to other tarantulas, the spider's
poison is also quite strong.
Poisonous fish are the stone, scorpion and lionfish found
in the Indo-Pacific. They are among the most poisonous fish species on
earth. Stone fish and scorpion fish can camouflage themselves very well and are
therefore difficult to spot. They both have a number of poisonous stings, and
those of the stone fish can sometimes be life-threatening.
The most famous representative of the puffer fish,
the fugu, is also poisonous. He has a compact, round
body shape and no scales. The nerve toxin is created by the microorganisms it
consumes, the Pseudomonas bacteria, which in turn produce the toxin. It only
becomes dangerous if you prepare it incorrectly, as the poison leads to nerve
paralysis and you die of the resulting respiratory or cardiac arrest. Since the
brain is not attacked, one remains conscious the entire time.
The poisonous snakes of Thailand, of which there are a considerable number,
should not be forgotten. The king cobra is one of
them, which is the longest venomous snake in the world, as well as the yellow-banded
krait, the blue krait, the chain viper, the green
viper, the green whip snake, the red-headed
krai t, especially in southern Thailand, the monocle
cobra on the Malay Peninsula and the white-lipped
-Bamboo viper. A bite from most venomous snakes here is often
fatal without treatment!
Particularly noticeable are the bright red males of the fire dragonfly, which
can be found everywhere on stagnant water. The brownish females, on the other
hand, are rather inconspicuous. But other insects such as beetles and
butterflies are also very widespread.
The avifauna of Thailand is home to some special features, such as the hornbill,
whose most striking feature is a horn-like structure above the beak. Drongos, hoopoes, kingfishers, starlings are
represented as well as herons, cranes, king
fishermen, terns and storks.
The once colorful underwater world has greatly decreased in its wealth, as
many of the coral reefs have been destroyed and the
habitat for the many species of fish and other living beings continues to
dwindle. Ballfish and porcupine fish are said to be found here, and sharks can
occasionally be seen. Divers are always enthusiastic about encounters with the whale
Thailand is divided into several climatic zones, according to which the flora
also depends. Prevails in the north of the monsoon forest of oaks, agarwood
trees and teak trees, for a strict
Fällverbot was adopted. In the northeast, due to overexploitation,
desertification has started, which is particularly evident in the Khorat
In the south and south-east of the country, tropical rainforests dominate and
play a very important role not only as a climate regulator, but also as a
habitat. In the upper zones of the rain forest of up to 50 m wide thrives Yang
tree, in coastal regions grow Rotangpalmen and ebenaceae. Also
in the south of Thailand, mangroves line the coast,
which represent a unique biotope for plants and animals. The nipa
palm, which is used very extensively, also grows here.
Numerous Ficus species are particularly widespread ,
with the rubber tree and the banyan tree
being just two of the approximately 800 different species. The
latter is a botanical specialty and is one of the largest living organisms in
the world. It is also known as the strangler fig or Bengal
fig. He is a hemiepiphyte, which means
that the rhizome (rhizome) this plant climbs up on tree
trunks but takes root in the ground. By being anchored in the ground, the plant
is supplied with nutrients and the aerial roots become thicker and
lignified. Over time, they develop into stems, some of which are enormous in
diameter. As soon as the roots touch, they merge into a dense network that winds
around the host tree. In this way, its main vessels are pinched off and it dies.
Banyan trees are fast-growing and can reach a height
of over 30 m, but their girth is more impressive. The largest banyan tree has a
diameter of 300 m and is in Calcutta. The tree is sacred to many peoples
because it is regarded as the seat of spirits.
At higher altitudes there are pines , and at an
altitude of 1700 to 2100 m on Doi Chiang Dao mountain. A true rarity grows
in northern Thailand, the Thai hemp palm. It occurs
exclusively in this area and is characterized by the smooth trunk and its
remarkable resistance to the cool and strong windy location.
If you look at the rivers, there is one plant that strikes you
in particular: the water hyacinth. As a thick carpet
it covers the rivers and although it is considered a weed, hinders navigation
and takes away the light from other plants, so that they die and the fish lose
their food, it has its good. It is able to purify the water of toxins such as
arsenic and is therefore used specifically to purify drinking water.
Bamboo forms entire forests, and is particularly
common in areas that have already been deforested. It is still a very important
In the woods, the lianas, ferns and mosses winding
on the trees accompany you at every step.
Also are often orchids, gardenia, hibiscus and
the toxic rhododendron. At the water you can admire water
lilies and lotus blossoms and also jasmine, bougainvilleae and frangipanis grow
here. The latter come in the form of large shrubs or small trees. They belong to
the dog poison family and stand out for their pink-white-colored and intensely
fragrant flowers. Their very long (up to 30 cm), pointed, dark green leaves are
also striking. In Asia, the Frangipani applies as a
temple or sacrificial plant and is a symbol of immortality.
The prickly and foul-smelling durian fruit of the civet tree is
very popular with the Thai people. Despite being considered a delict, the
smell of the pulp is so reminiscent of rotten eggs that it is forbidden to take
the fruit on public transport.
The nipa palm, whose occurrence is limited to the
mangrove forests in the south of Thailand, is used economically. Its fibers
are used to make wickerwork and the flowers are used to make a sugary juice,
while the cactus-like fruits are considered a delicacy in Thailand.
The Malay Peninsula has eucalyptus and rubber
tree plantations, and the bamboo is
still used to build houses, furniture and scaffolding.
Aloe Vera grows on the southern coast of Thailand,
the most famous medicinal plant in the world. There are a total of around 200
types of aloe, but only two types have healing properties, including aloe
vera. The plant has no trunk, while the approximately 50 cm long, fleshy leaves
that are toothed on the edge are arranged in a rosette. The gel-like interior of
the leaves is also the main source of the active ingredients in aloe. Taken
internally, for example in the form of a juice, the substances have a
strengthening effect on the immune system and detoxify. If the gel contained in
the leaves is applied externally, it has a skin-caring effect and a soothing
effect on mosquito bites, sunburn and burns. It also has a disinfectant and
wound and scar healing effect. Aloe also proves these properties in itself, by
being able to close wounds on leaves within a few hours. However, the plant only
develops the full range of its active ingredients at the age of 3-4 years. All
wild growing aloe species are under nature protection!
The fingerroot is another plant with healing
properties. Due to its antispasmodic properties, it is often used for digestive
problems, but it also has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.
Ginseng is one of the most famous herbal
remedies. The plant is between 50 and 80 cm tall, has whitish-yellow flowers and
then shiny red fruits. The root, which is up to 15 cm long and 2 cm thick, is
interesting and is used to strengthen the immune system and to increase physical
and mental performance. A distinction is made between red and white ginseng. The
dosage form and dose depends on the origin of the ginseng. In general, the
medicine should not be given for more than three months.
What all ficus species have in common is that their
leaves contain a milky sap that is slightly toxic and, if consumed in small
amounts, can lead to vomiting, stomach pain and, if very large amounts, to
cramps and paralysis.
Also known as golden Alpenrose or Rosenbaum known Rhododendron is
because of the flowers, leaves, fruits and diterpenes contained in the nectar
highly poisonous. The plant, which belongs to the heather family, causes stomach
irritation and symptoms of paralysis to vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, cramps and
in very severe cases even death from respiratory paralysis.
By the frangipani Caution is advised as this contains a
The water hyacinth originally comes from South
America, but it was introduced to Thailand from Java, where it came after its
spread in North America.
The approximately 40 m high civet or durian
tree, the prickly fruit of which is very popular in Thailand, was
once brought to the country from Indonesia and Malaysia.