Lithuania: Political System
According to COMPUTERMINUS.COM, Lithuania is a parliamentary democracy. At the head of the state is a president who is directly elected by the people every five years. Re-election is possible twice. The parliament is a unicameral system with 141 members, which is elected for four years. 71 members are elected by direct popular vote, 70 members by proportional representation. The Lithuanian constitution dates from 1992. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Lithuania politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
|Republic of Lithuania|
National anthem of Lithuania
Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the national anthem of Lithuania was written in 1898 by Dr. Vincas Kudirka composed and first performed by a choir under the direction of the composer Ceslovas Sasnauskas during a public concert on November 13, 1899. It became the country’s official anthem in 1918. It was banned during the Soviet occupation. However, it has been revived since 1988.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Lithuania.
In Lithuanian it is
|Lietuva, tevyne musu,Tu didvyriu žeme,
Iš praeities Tavo sunus
Te stiprybe semia.Tegul Tavo vaikai eina
Vien takais dorybes,
Tegul dirba Tavo naudai
Ir žmoniu gerybei.Tegul saule Lietuvoj
Ir šviesa, ir tiesa
Mus žingsnius telydi.Tegul meile Lietuvos
Dega musu širdyse,
Vardan tos Lietuvos
And in the English translation
|Lithuania, our fatherland,land of heroes!
Let your sons draw strength from the past.
Let your children only follow the paths of virtue,
they work for you and for the good of others.
Let the sun banish all darkness from Lithuania,
and light and truth always guide our steps.
Let the love of Lithuania burn in our hearts
and let unity blossom for the will of our country.
Lithuania: Known People
Architects and builders
- Rimantas Dicius (born 1934)architect
- Mindaugas Simkus (born 1973)artist
- Vytautas Karciauskas (born 1957)metal artist
- Kazys Viktoras Banaitis (1896-1963)composer
- Mikolajus Konstantinas Ciurlionis (1875-1911)composer
- Jascha Heifetz (1901 – 1987)He is one of the most famous violinists of the 20th century.
- Lena Valaitis (born 1943)pop singer
- Doris Nefedov/Alexandra (1942-1969)pop singer
- Vytautas Barkauskas (born 1931)composer
- Marija Gimbutas (1921-1994)archaeologist and anthropologist
- Juozas Matulis (1899-1993)scientist, physicist and chemist
Politicians and rulers
- Algirdas (1296-1377)Grand Duke of Lithuania
- Gediminas (1257 – 1341)Grand Duke of Lithuania
- Jogaila (1348 – 1434)Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland
- Mindaugas I (1203 – 1263)Prince and King of Lithuania
- Mindaugas II (1864-1928)King of Lithuania for three months
- Vytautas (1350 – 1430)Grand Duke of Lithuania
- Valdas Adamkus (born 1926)President of Lithuania since July 2004
- Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas (born 1932)President from 1993 to 1998 and Prime Minister since 2001
- Antanas Merkys (1888-1945)was Prime Minister
- Rolandas Paksas (born 1956)Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2002 as well as President from 2003 to 2004
- Justas Paleckis (1899-1980)Prime Minister of the Lithuanian SSR
- Antanas Smetona (1874-1944)President of Lithuania from 1918 and from 1926-1940
- Vytautas Landsbergis (born 1932)chairman of the independence movement from 1988-1990 and chairman of parliament from 1990-1996
Writer and poet
- Antanas Baranauska (1835-1902)writer
- Alexander Berkman (1870-1936)writer
- Kristijonas Donelaitis (1714-1780)writer
- Chaim Grade (1910-1982)writer
- Maironis (1862-1932)writer
- Tomas Venclova (born 1937)writer
- Laurence Harvey (1928-1973),Lithuanian-British actor
- Juozas Miltinis (1907-1994)director
- Audrius Stonys (born 1966)director and producer
- Zenonas Ivinskis (1908-1971)historian. He wrote the history of Lithuania.
- Jonas Zemaitis (1909-1954)anti-Soviet resistance fighter
- Algirdas Julius Greimas (1917-1992)semiotic
- Juozas Luksa (1921-195)anti-Soviet resistance fighter
- Vytautas Kavolis (1930-1996)sociologist and journalist
- Šarunas Jasikevicius (born 1976)basketball player
- Šarunas Marciulionis (born 1964)basketball player
- Arvydas Sabonis (born 1964)basketball player
- Povilas Vanagas (born 1970)ice dancer
- Virgilijus Alekna (born 1972)athlete. He won gold in discus throwing in Sydney in 2000 and in Athens in 2004.
- Nijole Sabaite (born 1950)athlete
- Austra Skujyte (born 1979)athlete. She won the silver medal in the heptathlon at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens.
Theologians and philosophers
- Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995)phenomenologist and existential philosopher
- Audrys Juozas Backis (born 1937)Archbishop of Vilnius
- Elijah ben Salomon Salman (1720 – 1797)Rabbi and Gaon (the Wise) of Vilna
- Antanas Maceina (1908 – 1987)creator and ideologist of the Lithuanian philosophy of the modern Catholic direction.