Romania: political system
According to COMPUTERMINUS.COM, Romania is a parliamentary democracy. At the head of the state is a president who is directly elected by the people every five years. Re-election is only possible one more time. The parliament is a bicameral system that is elected every four years. It consists of the House of Representatives with 332 members and the Senate with 137 senators. See AbbreviationFinder for more information about Romania politics, and acronyms as well.
The official name of the country is:
|Republic of Romania|
The national anthem of Romania was written by Andrei Muresanu (1816 – 1863) and set to music by Anton Pann (1796 – 1854). It became the country’s official anthem in 1989.
In Romanian language
|In Romanian||In the English translation|
|Desteapta-te, române, din somnul cel de moarte,În care te-adâncira barbarii de tirani!
Acum ori niciodata croieste-ti alta soarte,
La care sa se-nchine si cruzii tai dusmani!Acum ori niciodata sa dam dovezi în lume
Ca-n aste mâni mai curge un sânge de roman,
Si ca-n a noastre piepturi pastram cu fala-un nume
Triumfator în lupte, un nume de Traian!
Priviti, marete umbre, Mihai, Stefan, Corvine,
Româna natiune, ai vostri stranepoti,
Cu bratele armate, cu focul vostru-n vine,
“Viata-n libertate ori moarte!” striga toti.
Preoti, cu crucea-n frunte! caci oastea e crestina,
Deviza-i libertate si scopul ei preasfânt,
Murim mai bine-n lupta, cu glorie deplina,
Decât sa fim sclavi iarasi în vechiul nost ‘pamânt!
|Wake up, Romanian, from your death sleep,in which barbaric tyrants have sunk you!
Now or never, weave a new fate for you,
To which your cruel enemies will kneel!Now or never, let us send proof into the world,
That Roman blood still flows in these hands,
That we always proudly bear a name in our hearts,
The winner of his battles, the name of Trajan!
Look, shadows of highnesses, Michael, Stefan, Corvin,
The Romanian nation, your great-grandchildren,
arms in your arms, your fire in your veins,
screams with one voice: “Alive and free, or dead!”
Priest, go ahead with the crosses, because the army is Christian
The motto is freedom and the purpose is sacred,
Better to die gloriously in battle,
For be slaves again on our old soil!
The national flag of Romania is a tricolor and was officially introduced in its current form on December 27, 1989. Based on flag descriptions by Countryaah.com, the beginnings of the tricolor go back to 1848, with the flag in 1859 with the union of Wallachia and Moldova. The country was named Romania in 1862. The colors come from the banners of the parts of Moldova, Wallachia and Transylvania.
- Check top-mba-universities for public holidays, sports events, UNESCO world heritage sites and major places to visit in Romania.
Romania: Known People
- Constantin Brâncuşi (1873-1957), sculptor.
- Nicolae Ion Grigorescu (1838-1907), painter.
- Theodor Pallady (1871-1956), painter.
Writer and poet
- Tudor Arghezi (1880-1967), writer and poet.
- Ion Barbu (1895-1961), mathematician and writer.
- Rolf Bossert (1952-1986), German-speaking writer, teacher and journalist.
- Nicolae D. Cocea (1880-1949), writer.
- Ioan Mihai Cochinescu (born 1951), writer, screenwriter and director.
- Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) writer and esotericist.
- Mihai Eminescu (1850 – 1889) is considered the most important Romanian poet of the 19th century.
- Eugène Ionesco (1909-1994), playwright of the theater of the absurd. one of the most important dramatists and writers of the 20th century
- Panait Istrati (1884-1935), French-speaking writer of Romanian origin.
- Ioan Slavici (1848-1925), writer, storyteller and journalist.
- Tristan Tzara (1896-1963) French-speaking writer of Romanian origin and co-founder of Dadaism.
- Ion Creangă (1839-1889), writer and teacher.
- Paul Goma (born 1935), writer.
- Dumitru Tsepeneag (born 1939), writer, actor and director.
Doctors and natural scientists
- Gheorghe Marinescu (1863-1938), neurologist and founder of the Romanian School of Neurology.
- Henri Marie Coandă (1886 – 1972), physicist and builder of the first airplane with a steel engine. In 1910 he discovered the Coanda effect.
- Grigore Moisil (1906-1973), mathematician.
- Hermann Oberth (1894 – 1989), one of the founders of modern space travel and mentor to Wernher von Braun.
- Aurel Vlaicu (1882-1913), engineer, inventor in the field of aviation and pilot.
- Traian Vuia (1872-1950), inventor in the field of aviation.
- Emil Racoviţă (1868-1947), naturalist. He was a member of the research voyage on the ship “Belgica”, which went to Antarctica with Amundsen from 1897 to 1899 and was the founder of biospeology.
Architects and builders
- Ion Mincu (1852-1912), architect.
- Anghel Saligny (1854-1925), architect. Among other things, he built the bridge at Cernavoda.It has a length of 4,037 m.
Musicians, actors and directors
- Maria Cebotari (1910-1949), opera singer.
- Sergiu Celibidache (1912-1996), conductor.
- Violeta Dinescu (born 1953), pianist and composer.
- George Enescu (1881-1955), violinist and composer.
- Angela Gheorghiu (born 1965), opera singer.
- Clara Haskil (1895-1960), pianist.
- Mihail Jora (1891-1971), composer.
- Dinu Lipatti (1917-1950), pianist and composer.
- Radu Lupu (born 1945), pianist.
- Ciprian Porumbescu (1853-1883), composer.
- Maria Tănase (1913-1963), chanson singer.
- Gheorghe Zamfir (born 1941), pan flute player.
- David Esrig (born 1935), director.
- Lucian Pintilie (born 1933), director, actor and screenwriter.
- Sergiu Nicolaescu (born 1930), director of adventure films.Together with Alecu Croitoru and Wolfgang Staudte, he directed the four-part adventure film “Der Seewolf” from 1971 with Raimund Harmstorf in the leading role. Other adventure films in which he directed were among others the series “Leather stocking tales from 1969 or the TV series from 1975” Lockruf des Goldes “
- Lucian Pintilie (born 1933), director, actor and screenwriter.
Politicians and rulers
- Vlad III. Draculea (1431-1476), prince and ruler of Wallachia. He fought tenaciously against the Ottomans and was known for his cruel warfare. His person served as a model for the famous horror novel “Dracula” by Bram Stoker.
- Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1839-1914), Prince and from 1866 King Carol I of Romania.
- Ferdinand I von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1865-1927), King of Romania from 1914 to 1927.
- Carol II von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1893-1953), King of Romania from 1930 to 1940.
- Michael I of Romania (born 1921), King of Romania from 1927 to 1930 and 1940 to 1947.
- Ion Antonescu (1882-1946), Prime Minister from 1940 to 1944.
- Elena Ceauşescu (1919-1989), politician and wife of the dictator Ceauşescu.
- Nicolae Ceaușescu (1918-1989), president and dictator from 1965-1989.
- Emil Constantinescu (born 1939), President from 1996 to 2000.
- Alexandru Ioan Cuza (1820 – 1873), founder and first prince of Romania. In 1859 he united Wallachia and Moldova and in 1861 proclaimed the state of Romania
- Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (1901-1965), Chairman of the State Council from 1944 to 1965.
- Octavian Goga (1881-1938), politician and poet. He was Prime Minister from 1937 to 1938. His reign was marked by anti-Semitist politics.
- Ion Iliescu (born 1930) he was involved in the revolution against Nicolae Ceau ? Escu and was President from 1989 to 1996 and 2000 to 2004.
- Mihail Kogălniceanu (1817-1891), first Prime Minister of Romania in 1863.
- Călin Popescu Tăriceanu (born 1952), head of government since 2004.
- Dimitrie Cantemir (1673 – 1723), universal scientist, humanist and ruler of the Principality of Moldova.
- Adolf Albin (1848 – 1920), chess master.
- Iolanda Balaş (born 1936) athlete and two-time Olympic champion.
- Nadia Comşneci (born 1961), gymnast and five-time Olympic champion.
- Ilie Nşstase (born 1946), tennis player. In 1972 and 1973 he was first in the tennis world rankings.
- Angelica Rozeanu (born 1921), table tennis player and six-time world champion.
- Gabriela Szabo (born 1975), track and field athlete.
Theologians, clergymen and philosophers
- Lucian Blaga (1895-1961), philosopher, poet and playwright.
- Emile Michel Cioran (1911-1995), philosopher.
- Constantin Noica (1909-1987), philosopher.
- Mircea Eliade (1907-1986), philosopher in the field of religious history.
Most of the mammals can be found in the deciduous forests of Romania.
Here live foxes, deer, wild boars, badgers, squirrels and wolves. Typical animals of the steppe areas, on the other hand, are rodents such as hamsters, field mice, hares, moles and polecats.
Molehills are often seen, often in gardens or meadows – much to the annoyance of those affected. However, you can hardly see the animals themselves.
In the mountains you will find a slightly different population.
Here you can still meet brown bears, whose population is slowly recovering, and also lynxesinhabit the Eastern and Southern Carpathians. Typical of the lynx are the brush ears and whiskers, which are used for intra-species communication.
Wildcats as well as tree and stone martens are also part of the mountain fauna.
The Danube Delta offers unique living conditions for both plants and animals.
In addition to sea otters and raccoon dogs, muskrats have also settled here, and even wolves can occasionally be seen.
Muskrats belong to the voles subfamily and are originally from North America, having spread from Prague across Europe.
They have a long, thin and laterally flattened tail as well as dense, soft and smooth fur, which was previously popular in fur production. It is brown to yellowish on top and gray on the underside.
The muskrat reaches a body length of 25 – 40 cm, with the tail of 19 – 25 cm.
The twilight and nocturnal mammal mainly feeds on aquatic plants, but also on mussels, crabs and the bark of willow trees. She lives close to the water and is very good at swimming as well as diving.
They build their nests on the banks of rivers and often live in caves they have dug themselves, which, however, lead to the destruction of dams, dykes and bank reinforcements, which has already resulted in flooding.
The otter has a pointed body, can be up to 30 cm high and 1.20 m long, with about 40 cm on the tail and belongs to the marten-like family. It has short legs and thick brown fur, which has long been persecuted for it.
He likes to stay where trees and bushes can offer enough protection.
Its diet consists primarily of fish, but it also feeds on frogs, crabs, insects and water voles.
The caves of the Bihor Mountains are also known for the pipistrelle bats that live here and are under conservation, which are the most widespread European bat species.
The chamois newly settled in the Rodnei Mountains are also under nature protection. They belong to the cloven-hoofed family and live at an altitude of 800-2500 m. Characteristic are their relatively thin, 30 cm long and backward curved hook-shaped horns. Their fur, which is reddish-brown in summer and darker in winter, forms a standing mane from the neck to the croup in front of the tail, from which the hair for the “chamois beard” is plucked.
The very small population of aurochs, which can only be admired in the Dragoþ-Voda reserve, is also to be rebuilt.
One of the very rare reptiles in Romania is the Moorish tortoise.
This has a wide distribution area with many subspecies, which, however, is not very connected.
There are numerous species of lizards in Romania. They include the sand lizard, the green lizard, the Croatian mountain lizard, the wall lizard, the mountain lizard and, in the Alps, the forest lizard and the poisonous fire salamander.
It belongs to the tailed amphibians, becomes between 15 and 20 cm tall and is clearly recognizable by its black color with yellow or reddish spots.
He prefers to stay in damp mixed deciduous and coniferous forests or pure beech forests near rivers.
Its diet consists of snails, earthworms, spiders and butterflies.
The European pond turtle, active during the day and at night, is widespread, but its population is in decline and therefore endangered. You can find them in bodies of water with a good population of aquatic plants and a muddy bottom, but you will rarely see them as these animals are very shy. The flat and oval shell can grow up to 36 cm long, and this turtle has a fairly long tail.
Their diet is predominantly animal. It consists of fish, newts, tadpoles, crabs and water snails. In winter, the turtle buries itself in the bottom mud and bridges the cold season in a frozen state.
Among the non-poisonous snakes one can find the Aesculapian snake, the grass snake, the smooth snake, the climbing snake and the dice snake.
In the Domogled National Park you should be particularly careful, as Romania’s most poisonous snake lives here, the European horned viper, which is also one of the most poisonous snakes in Europe. They are also known under the names sand or horned viper and sand otter. Even though you rarely meet her, you should still keep your eyes open. Children, the elderly and the weak should be particularly careful, as deaths have already occurred here.
The adder is a venomous snake that also occurs here.
Typical birds in the mountains are eagles and hazel grouse.
In contrast, birds of prey such as the hawk, falcon and golden eagle are predominantly represented in the steppes.
Most of the birds have their nesting sites in the Danube Delta, including the very shy Dalmatian pelican, cormorants, kingfishers, black herons, white-tailed eagles, little egrets and great egrets as well as the stilt and spoonbill.
With a lot of luck you can see the spotted eagle, which is only 61 – 66 cm tall, in the air on the Bihor Mountains. It has dark brown plumage with a characteristic light spot on the top of the outstretched wings. The special thing about this eagle is that it can not only hunt in a dive or from a high seat, but is also successful on the ground. There are frogs, snakes, mice and rarely carrion on the menu.
In addition to the lesser spotted eagle, the Alpine ring thrush, the capercaillie and the pine jay also live here. And of course, numerous songbirds live in the country
The black grouse has become very rare, but a few animals can still be seen in the Rodnei Mountains.
Over 130 species of birds, including black vultures, which are the second largest birds of prey in Europe, imperial eagles, common ravens and alpine ravens, could be counted in the Bucegi National Park.
The dragonflies and butterflies in the Danube Delta are particularly numerous. Over 1,300 species of butterflies have been counted over the meadows of Domogled Mountain.
And of course mosquitoes, flies, horseflies, ticks, bees, wasps and hornets live here
The tree species native to Romania are mostly characteristic of the individual vegetation zones. In the forest steppe, different types of oak, beech and elm are the predominant trees, in the plains and low hill regions there are predominantly holm oaks, cornel churches, linden trees, ash trees and the sycamore maple. Beeches are the typical trees of the regions at an altitude of 1200 to 1400 m, at heights of 1700 to 1800 m of the Bihor Mountains, conifers predominate. The numerous national parks of Romania are also characterized by their very own tree species: the stone pine and creeping pines are typical of the Calimani National Park, and the Banat black pines and hazel trees, which are unique in Europe and endemic to Romania, can be admired in the Vânãtori-Neamt National Park.
The most important crops are potatoes, maize and apple trees. The potato belongs to the nightshade family and spreads vegetatively through subterranean tubers, which ultimately also represent the actual potato. Above-ground parts are, however, poisonous, as are the sprouts that develop after too long storage directly on the potato. Although the potato originally came from the South American Andes, it is now grown worldwide.
The rare angelica has conspicuously large umbels and loves sunny to partially shaded and moist locations. It strengthens the physical and psychological resistance, fights cramps and prevents depression. Furthermore, it has a diuretic, digestive and appetizing effect. However, it should be handled with care during pregnancy as it stimulates the uterus. The root of the plant is mainly used. However, overdosing and direct skin contact can also cause skin irritation.
A common but also poisonous plant is the broom. The shrub reaches a height of up to 2 m and has showy, bright yellow flowers. The rhododendron, also known as the golden yellow alpine rose or rose tree and growing on the Rodnei Mountains, is very poisonous due to the diterpenes contained in the flowers, leaves, fruits and nectar. The plant, which belongs to the heather family, causes stomach irritation and symptoms of paralysis to vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, cramps and in very severe cases even death from respiratory paralysis. The rhododendron, which comes from North America, has its origin in Asia and is also the main distribution area there.
Another poisonous plant is the marsh wolf milk, which belongs to the milkweed family and is increasingly found on marsh meadows and in bank bushes.
Some of the tree species native to Romania today were once introduced, for example the black locust, whose original range is in North America. The potato, which, like the black locust, is one of the useful plants of Romania, originally comes from the South American Andes.
The Danube Delta is a unique biotope and home to numerous rare and extraordinary plants. Feather grass, sea buckthorn and the salt-resistant samphire are at home here. The world’s largest contiguous reed landscape impresses not only with its size, but also with its richness of color, especially in the spring and summer months.
In spring, the white willow and white willow as well as the water rape and the marsh wolf milk with their large yellow umbels bloom here, while the countless white flowers of the water lilies and the water mint add the splash of color in summer.
The Danube Delta is, however, not the only biotope in Romania, the mountains of the Carpathian Arc are also characterized by some rare peculiarities, such as the edelweiss, the gentian and the poisonous rhododendron. The edelweiss belongs to the daisy family and grows on sunny, calcareous lawn slopes, on stony meadows, on limestone cliffs and in crevices. The plant grows to a height of 3 – 20 cm and has a characteristic flower consisting of 5 – 6 small yellow flower heads surrounded by white star-shaped leaves.
In addition to the Carpathian Mountains, edelweiss is also found in the Pyrenees, Alps and Central Asia.
Other rare species in Romania are angelica, the peat plant, which belongs to the orchid family, and the Charles Scepter, also known as the Bog King, all of which can be found in the Vânãtori-Neamt National Park. The daffodil field east of Abrud is also famous.